Tetraphytae

Entocladia viridis, from Scagel (1966).

Belongs within: Chlorophyta.
Contains: Trebouxiophyceae, Volvocales, Chlorococcales, Oedogoniophyceae, Bryopsidales, Ulvales, Ulotrichales, Trentepohliales, Dasycladales, Cladophoraceae, Siphonocladales.

The Tetraphytae are a clade of green algae in which cytokinesis involves a phycoplast, a system of microtubules that is oriented parallel to the plane of cell division.

Characters (from Cavalier-Smith 1998): Cruciate microtubular roots without MLS; telophase spindle collapses; cytokinesis involves a phycoplast.

<==Tetraphytae
    |--+--TrebouxiophyceaeL-BC03
    |  `--Chlorophyceae [Polyphytes, Volvocida]L-BC03
    |       |  i. s.: Chlorogonium elongatumGLB04
    |       |         DesmodesmusAS12
    |       |         FloydiellaAS12
    |       |         CylindrocapsaAS12
    |       |         HafniomonasAS12
    |       |         MychanastesAS12
    |       |         TreubariaAS12
    |       |         TrochisciaAS12
    |       |         Hemichloris antarcticaSH05
    |       |         Carteria subcordiformisAB19, PP64
    |       |--VolvocalesL-BC03
    |       |--ChlorococcalesL-BC03
    |       `--OedogoniophyceaeAS12
    `--Ulvophyceae [Bryopsidophyceae]L-BC03
         |  i. s.: Ulvellaceae [Ctenocladales]N10
         |           |--Stromatella Kornmann & Sahling 1985N10
         |           |    `--S. monostromatica (Dangeard) Kornmann & Sahling 1985 [=Ulvella monostromatica Dangeard 1965]N10
         |           |--Epicladia Reinke 1889N10
         |           |    |--E. condensata (Setchell & Gardner) Norris 2010 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |           |    `--E. mexicana (Setchell & Gardner) Norris 2010 [=Entocladia mexicana Setchell & Gardner 1924]N10
         |           |--Ulvella Crouan & Crouan 1859N10
         |           |    |--U. applanata (Setchell & Gardner) South & Tittley 1986 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |           |    |--U. lens Crouan & Crouan 1859N10
         |           |    `--U. setchellii Dangeard 1931N10
         |           |--AcrochaeteN10
         |           |    |--A. codicola (Setchell & Gardner) O’Kelly in Gabrielson et al. 2006 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |           |    |--A. flustraeL10
         |           |    |--A. ramoseL10
         |           |    |--‘Ectochaete’ ramulosa Moewus 1949 [=Phaeophila ramulosa]N10
         |           |    `--‘Endoderma’ vagans Børgesen 1920 [=Phaeophila vagans]N10
         |           `--Entocladia Reinke 1879N10
         |                |--E. marchantiae (Setchell & Gardner) Cribb 1995 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |                |--E. polysiphoniae Setchel & Gardner 1924N10
         |                |--E. robustum Cribb 1995 [incl. Endoderma viride f. major Børgesen 1920]N10
         |                |--E. velutina Cribb 1995N10
         |                `--E. viridis Reinke 1879 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |         Phaeophila Hauck 1876 [Phaeophilaceae, Phaeophilales]N10
         |           |--*P. dendroides (Crouan & Crouan) Batters 1902 (see below for synonymy)N10
         |           `--P. polymorpha Jao 1937S57
         |         PseudonochlorisAS12
         |         CyclocrinalesNW04
         |           |--Pasceolus [Pasceolaceae]NW04
         |           |--ApidiaceaeNW04
         |           |--Coelosphaeridium [Coelosphaeridiaceae]NW04
         |           |--AmphispongiaB04 [AmphispongiaceaeNW04]
         |           |    `--A. oblonga Salter 1861B04
         |           `--CyclocrinaceaeNW04
         |                |--CyclocrinitesNW04
         |                |--Mastopora parvaNW04
         |                `--NidulitesNW04
         |         BryopsidalesN10
         |--+--UlvalesL-BC03
         |  `--UlotrichalesL-BC03
         `--+--TrentepohlialesL-BC03
            `--+--DasycladalesL-BC03
                  `--CladophorophyceaeN10
                       |--CladophoraceaeL-BC03
                       `--SiphonocladalesN10

Acrochaete codicola (Setchell & Gardner) O’Kelly in Gabrielson et al. 2006 [=Entocladia codicola Setchell & Gardner 1920]N10

Entocladia marchantiae (Setchell & Gardner) Cribb 1995 [=Pringsheimia marchantiae Setchell & Gardner 1924, Acrochaete marchantiae (Setchell & Gardner) Neilsen & McLachan 1986, Pringsheimia marchantae, Pringsheimiella marchantiae (Setchell & Gardner) Schmidt & Petrak in Schmidt 1935, Pringsheimiella marchantae]N10

Entocladia viridis Reinke 1879 [=Acrochaete viridis (Reinke) Nielsen 1979, Endoderma viride (Reinke) Lagerheim 1883, Phaeophila viridis (Reinke) Burrows in Parke & Dixon 1976]N10

Epicladia condensata (Setchell & Gardner) Norris 2010 [=Entocladia condensata Setchell & Gardner 1924]N10

*Phaeophila dendroides (Crouan & Crouan) Batters 1902 [=Ochlochaete dendroides Crouan & Crouan 1852; incl. P. engleri Reinke 1889]N10

Ulvella applanata (Setchell & Gardner) South & Tittley 1986 [=Pseudulvella applanata Setchell & Gardner 1920]N10

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[B04] Botting, J. P. 2004. An exceptional Caradoc sponge fauna from the Llanfawr Quarries, central Wales and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (1): 31–63.

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[L10] Levenets, I. R. 2010. Macroalgae of fouling, scallop epibiosis and benthos in the southern Primorye, Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 208–213. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[NW04] Nitecki, M. H., B. D. Webby, N. Spjeldnaes & Zhen Y.-Y. 2004. Receptaculitids and algae. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 336–347. Columbia University Press.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SH05] Selbmann, L., G. S. de Hoog, A. Mazzaglia, E. I. Friedman & S. Onofri. 2005. Fungi at the edge of life: cryptoendolithic black fungi from Antarctic desert. Studies in Mycology 51: 1–32.

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