Textularia sp., from the US Geological Survey.

Belongs within: Textulariida.

The Textulariinae are a group of agglutinated Foraminifera known from the Carboniferous to the present day. The test is initially planispiral in members of the subfamily Spiroplectammininae, becoming biserial in later stages; in members of other subfamilies it is biserial from the start though it may become uniserial in later stages of Textulariinae (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free or attached, may have early planispiral coil, generally biserial and may become uniserial; wall agglutinated; aperture simple, basal or terminal, single to multiple.

Textulariidae (see below for synonymy)
|--Norvanganina Mikhalevich 1981 [Norvanganinae]M13
|--Planctostoma Loeblich & Tappan 1955LT64 [PlanctostomatinaeM13]
| `--*P. luculenta (Brady 1884) [=Textularia luculenta]LT64
|--Siphotextularia Finlay 1939LT64 [Siphotextulariinae]M13
| |--*S. wairoana Finlay 1939LT64
| |--S. flintiiJW99
| `--S. rotshauseniJW99
`--Textulariinae [Textilaria, Textilaridae, Textilariinae]LT64
|--Poritextularia Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT64
| `--*P. mexicana Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT64
|--Semivulvulina Finlay 1939LT64
| `--*S. capitata (Stache 1865) [=Textilaria capitata, Vulvulina (*Semivulvulina) capitata]LT64
|--Olssonina Bermúdez 1949 [incl. Cribrotextularia Loeblich & Tappan 1952]LT64
| |--*O. cribrosa Bermúdez 1949LT64
| `--O. coryensis (Cole 1941) [=Textularia coryensis, *Cribrotextularia coryensis]LT64
`--Textularia Defrance 1824S-VC91 (see below for synonymy)
|--*T. sagittula Defrance in de Blainville 1824 (see below for synonymy)LT64
| |--T. s. sagittulaA68
| `--T. s. atrata Cushman 1911A68
|--T. agglutinansLT64
|--T. candeiana (d’Orbigny 1839)A68
|--T. gracillimaLT64
|--T. grahamensisC40
|--T. gramenC40
|--T. labiata Reuss 1862 [=*Plecanium labiatum]LT64
|--T. porrecta Brady 1884A68
|--T. pseudogramen Chapman & Parr 1937A68
|--T. ripleyensisC40
|--T. schencki Cushman & Valentine 1930S-VC91
|--T. siphonifera Brady 1881A68
|--T. textulariformisG31
|--T. trochusJP64
|--T. truncataM62
`--T. zeagglutaB49

Textularia Defrance 1824S-VC91 [=Textilaria Ehrenberg 1839LT64, Textillaria Schwager 1864LT64; incl. Plecanium Reuss 1862LT64]

*Textularia sagittula Defrance in de Blainville 1824 [=Spiroplectammina sagittula, *Textilaria sagittula, *Textillaria sagittula]LT64

Textulariidae [Artextulidia, Plecanioidea, Textilarida, Textilaridea, Textilarideae, Textilariidae, Textilarina, Textularina, Textularinae, Textulinidae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A68] Albani, A. D. 1968. Recent Foraminiferida of the central coast of New South Wales. AMSA Handbook 1: 1–37.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159–186.

[JP64] Jones, T. R., & W. K. Parker. 1864. Note on some Foraminifera dredged by the late Mr. Lucas Barrett at Jamaica. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 105.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

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