Theridiidae

Female Dipoena melanogaster, from Spiders of the Netherlands.

Belongs within: Araneoidea.
Contains: Steatoda, Latrodectus, Enoplognatha, Phycosoma, Robertus, Argyrodes, Theridion, Achaearanea.

The Theridiidae, the cobweb spiders, are a cosmopolitan family of spiders that construct irregular webs with radiating threads. Prey is taken using a wrap-bite attack involving sticky silk (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). This family includes a number of species that live in association with humans. Notable members include Dipoena, a genus of very small spiders with an anteriorly raised carapace and a wide, concave clypeus. Phoroncidia is another genus of small spiders in which the skin of the abdomen is thickened and adorned with prominent lobes and knobs (Forster & Forster 1999). Females of the Hadrotarsinae have the colulus replaced by two setae and palmate palps (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present; labium not rebordered; legs with three tarsal claws, with no or few spines; tarsi IV with a row of lightly curved, serrated bristles; ecribellate; modified, aggregate silk glands present, sticky silk used to wrap prey; male palpal tibia distally widened, no paracymbium; entelegyne.

<==Theridiidae [Theridioidae]
    |--Dipoena Thorell 1869A02
    |    |--D. aculeata (Hickman 1951) [=Trigonobothrys aculeatus]FS04
    |    |--D. blattea (Urquhart 1885) [incl. Theridium albogullatum Uruhart 1887, T. tuberculum Urquhart 1887]NS00
    |    |--D. crassiventrisB06
    |    |--D. infulata (Koch & Berendt 1854)S93
    |    |--D. melanogasterSS02
    |    |--D. prona (Menge 1868)K02
    |    `--D. setosa (Hickman 1951) [=Trigonobothrys setosus]FS04
    `--+--RobertusA02
       `--+--ArgyrodesA02
          `--+--AnelosimusA02
             |    |--A. eximius (Keyserling 1884)A02
             |    `--A. vittatusV09 [=Theridion vittatumV09; incl. T. pulchellumP-C06]
             `--+--TheridionA02
                `--AchaearaneaA02
Theridiidae incertae sedis:
  SteatodaPVD10
  0--LatrodectusBS09
  `--+--Spintharus [Spintharinae]BS09
     |    `--S. flavidusBS09
     `--Phoroncidia Westwood 1835BS09, PVD10 [Phoroncidiinae]
          |--P. americanaBS09
          |--P. lygeanaJD-S07
          |--P. pukeiwa (Marples 1955)PVD10
          |--P. puketoru (Marples 1955)PVD10
          `--P. quadrata (Pickard-Cambridge 1879)PVD10
  Theonoe minutissima (Cambridge 1879)K02
  Neottiura Menge 1868S03
    |--N. bimaculataS03
    `--N. suaveolens (Simon 1879) [incl. Dipoena regia Drenski 1929]W77
  Episinus Walckenaer in Latreille 1809PVD10
    |--E. algiricus Lucas 1846E12
    |--E. angulatus (Blackwall 1836)BBM02
    |--E. antipodianus Pickard-Cambridge 1879PVD10
    |--E. australis Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--E. conifera (Urquhart 1887) [=Ariamnes conifera]NS00
    |--E. similanus Urquhart 1893PVD10
    |--E. similitudus Urquhart 1893PVD10
    `--E. truncatusSS02
  EnoplognathaW76
  Pholcomma Thorell 1869 [Pholcommatinae]PVD10
    |--P. antipodianum (Forster 1955)PVD10 [=Erigone antipodianaF64]
    |--P. gibbum (Westring 1851)MG03
    |--P. hickmani Forster 1964PVD10
    `--P. turbotti (Marples 1956)PVD10
  Euryopis Menge 1868PVD10
    |--E. argenteaJVHN90
    |--E. elegans Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--E. episinoides (Walckenaer 1847)PO08
    |--E. flavomaculata (Koch 1836)BBM02
    `--E. nana (Pickard-Cambridge 1879)PVD10 [incl. Theridium pusillulum Urquhart 1890NS00]
  LithyphantesS95
    |--L. anticus Berland 1939S93
    |--L. corollatusS95
    |--L. lepidusM83
    `--L. marmoratusS06
  Moneta Pickard Cambridge 1870PVD10
    `--M. conifera (Urquhart 1887)PVD10
  Teutana grossaM83
  PhycosomaFS04
  Nesticodes Archer 1950PVD10
    `--*N. rufipes (Lucas 1846)PVD10 (see below for synonymy)
  Lasaeola Simon 1881MG03
    |--L. austera (Simon 1908) [=Dipoena (Lasaeola) austera]M90
    |--L. lindholmi Strand 1910 [=Dipoena lindholmi]J98
    `--L. tristis (Hahn 1833)MG03
  Paidiscura Archer 1950MG03
    `--P. dromedaria (Simon 1880)MG03
  Chrosiothes curvispinosusP92
  Icona Forster 1955PVD10
    |--*I. alba Forster 1955PVD10
    `--I. drama Forster 1964PVD10
  Paraebius Thorell 1894T94
    `--*P. mandibularis Thorell 1894T94
  Landana petitiiT94
  Chrysso picturata (Simon 1895)HU08
  ThwaitesiaL-M-HM11
  Parasteatoda Archer 1946PVD10
    |--*P. tepidariorum (Koch 1841)PVD10
    `--P. lunata (Clerck 1757)MF11
  Crustulina Menge 1868GGG04
    `--C. guttata (Wid. 1834)S06
  Cephela longisetaV09
  Coleosoma floridanumV09
  CoscinidaJD-S07
  Hadrotarsinae [Hadrotarsidae]JD-S07
  ProboscidulaJD-S07
  EmertonellaMC13
  YagunimenaMC13
  Cryptachaea Archer 1946PVD10
    |--C. blattea (Urquhart 1886) [incl. Achaearanea acoreensis (Berland 1932)]PVD10
    `--C. verruculata (Urquhart 1886)PVD10
  Ariamnes Thorell 1968PVD10
    |--A. colubrinus Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    `--A. triangularis Urquhart 1887PVD10 [=Argyrodes triangulatusNS00]
  Rhomphaea Koch 1872PVD10
    `--R. urquharti (Bryant 1933)PVD10 [=Argyrodes urquhartiiNS00, Ariamnes attenuatus Urquhart 1887NS00]
  FlegiaS93
    |--F. longimana Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    `--F. succini Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  MunicepsS93
    |--M. chiapasanus Petrunkevitch 1971P92
    |--M. minutus Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--M. pulcheri (Petrunkevitch 1942)S93
  Mictodipoena stridula (Petrunkevitch 1958)S93
  EomysmenaS93
    |--E. asta Petrunkevitch 1971P92
    |--E. baltica (Petrunkevitch 1946)S93
    |--E. bassleri (Petrunkevitch 1942)S93
    |--E. moritura Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--E. stridens Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  Nactodipoena dunbari Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  EodipoenaS93
    |--E. consulta Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    |--E. germanica Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    |--E. kaestneri Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    |--E. nielseni Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    |--E. oculata Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--E. regalis Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  NanomysmenaS93
    |--N. aculeata Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    |--N. gracilis Petrunkevitch 1958S93
    `--N. munita Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  Astodipoena crassa Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  Cretotheridion Wunderlich 2015W19
  Burmatheridion Wunderlich 2018W19
  ClyaP92
  ClythiaP92
  CornitisP92
  ProneposP92
    |--P. exilis Petrunkevitch 1963P92
    `--P. fossilis Petrunkevitch 1963P92
  CornutidionP92
  CraspedisiaP92
  DipoenataP92
  StemmopsP92
  StyposisP92
  Formicina mutinensisR96
  Pedanostethus Simon 1884S06
    |--P. lividus (Blackw. 1836)S06
    |--P. neglectus (Cambr. 1871)S06
    `--P. riparius Keys. 1886S06
  Melos Pickard-Cambridge 1899P-C06
    `--*M. bicolor Pickard-Cambridge 1899P-C06
  Phyllonethis lineata [incl. P. lineata var. redimitum]P-C06

Nomen nudum: Lithyphantes alascensisS06

*Nesticodes rufipes (Lucas 1846)PVD10 [=Theridion rufipesFF99; incl. T. bajulans Koch 1875S99, T. borbonicum Vinson 1864S99, T. flavoaurantiacum Sim. 1880S99, T. longipes v. Hasselt 1882S99, T. luteipes Cambr. 1870S99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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