Theridion

Theridion sisyphium, from here.

Belongs within: Theridiidae.

Theridion is a cosmopolitan genus of small cobweb spiders. Members of this genus generally have a globular opisthosoma and non-turreted carapace. The type species, T. pictum, is widespread across the Holarctic and has a yellowish cephalothorax and a pale longitudinal band with a sinuate margin on the abdomen.

<==Theridion Walckenaer 1805PVD10 [=TheridiumK92]
    |--*T. pictum (Walckenaer 1805)SC97
    |--T. acuminatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. albocinctum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. ‘albocinctum’ Urquhart 1892 non Lucas 1846PVD10
    |--T. alutaceum Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. ampliatum Urquhart 1892PVD10 [=Achaearanea ampliataFF99]
    |--T. argentatulum Roewer 1942PVD10
    |--T. argus Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. aurantium Emerton 1915W76
    |--T. bellicosum (Simon 1873)W76
    |--T. bicolor Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. bimaculatum (Linnaeus 1758)BBM02
    |--T. convexum Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--T. cruciferum Urquhart 1886PVD10 (see below for synonymy)
    |--T. denticulatumP-C06
    |--T. detersum Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. differensJDW90
    |--T. dromedarium Simon 1880 (see below for synonymy)W77
    |--T. erythropus Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. evexum Keyserling 1884P-GGJ08
    |--T. extrilidum Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--T. flabelliferum Urquhart 1887PVD10 [=Theridium flabelliferaNS00; incl. Theridium venustulum Urquhart 1887NS00]
    |--T. flavomaculatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. flavonotatum Becker 1879SC97
    |--T. frondeumCM07
    |--T. fulvolimulatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. gigantipes Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--T. gracilipes Urquhart 1889PVD10 [=Theridium gracilipesNS00]
    |--T. granulatum Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. hirtum Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. impressum [incl. T. impressum var. intermedium Kulcz. 1885]S06
    |--T. instabile (Pick.-Cambridge 1870)W76
    |--T. intrepidum Sörensen 1898S06
    |--T. longicrure Marples 1956PVD10
    |--T. luctuosum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. lundbecki Sörensen 1898S06
    |--T. mandibulare Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. miniaceum Doleschall 1857D57
    |--T. montanum Emerton 1882PS08
    |--T. murariumJDW90
    |--T. mystaceum Koch 1870RKD02
    |--T. nigromarginatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. nigropunctatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. notatum (L. 1758)S06
    |--T. oleatum Koch 1880S06
    |--T. ornatumCM07
    |--T. ovale Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. ovatum Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. pallens Blackwell 1834W77 [=Paidiscura pallensV09]
    |--T. petrense Sörensen 1898S06
    |--T. porphyreticum Urquhart 1889PVD10 [=Theridium porphyreticumNS00]
    |--T. properum Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |--T. pumilio Urquhart 1886PVD10 [=Theridium pumilioNS00]
    |--T. punicapunctatum Urquhart 1891PVD10
    |--T. punicum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. rufithorax Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. rufolineatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. sexalbomaculatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. sexpunctatum Emerton 1882W76
    |--T. simileP-C06
    |--T. simplex Koch & Berendt 1854S93
    |--T. sisyphiumFF99
    |--T. spiniventre Cambr. 1870K92
    |--T. squalidum Urquhart 1886PVD10
    |--‘Theridium’ studiosumB06
    |--T. sundaicum Doleschall 1859D59
    |--T. tinctumV09
    |--T. tubicolum Doleschall 1859D59
    |--T. umbraticum Koch 1873S06
    |--T. uncinatum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. varians Hahn 1831 [incl. T. kratochvili Kolosvary 1934]W77
    |--T. venenosum Risso 1826R26
    |--T. vicinum Lucas 1846E12
    |--T. viridanum Urquhart 1887PVD10
    `--T. zantholabio Urquhart 1886PVD10

Theridion cruciferum (Urquhart 1886)PVD10 [incl. Theridium brunneafolium Urquhart 1889NS00, Theridium exornatum Urquhart 1888NS00, Theridium helvolum Urquhart 1888NS00, Theridium maculopes Urquhart 1887NS00, Theridium nigerpunctillum Urquhart 1889NS00]

Theridion dromedarium Simon 1880 [=Achaearanea dromedaria; incl. T. bigibbum Pickard-Cambridge 1912, T. palustre Pavesi 1880]W77

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P-GGJ08] Penna-Gonçalves, V., C. R. M. Garcia & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Homology in a context dependent predatory behavior in spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 352–359.

[P-C06] Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1906. The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Arachnida. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Additional Series 5: 53–65.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Zur Spinnenfauna Deutschlands, XVI. Zur Kenntnis der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattungen Enoplognatha Pavesi und Robertus O. Pick.-Cambridge (Araneida: Theridiidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 97–112.

[W77] Wunderlich, J. 1977. Zur Synonymie südeuropäischer Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneida: Theridiidae, Linyphiidae, Gnaphosidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 289–293.

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