Thomisidae

Male Stephanopis barbipes, copyright Ed Nieuwenhuys.

Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Misumena, Diaea, Oxyptila, Thomisus, Xysticus.

The Thomisidae, crab spiders, are a diverse group of spiders primarily found hunting on vegetation. Members of the family include Borboropactus, a genus of moderately large, ground-dwelling thomisids found in the Asian and African tropics that characteristically have the body coated with mud. The genus Stephanopis, found in Australasia and South America, includes species with the anterior eye row strongly recurved and the larger anterior lateral eyes positioned on a pair of protruding points at the front of the cephalothorax. The South American genus Aphantochilus includes ant-mimicking species with spinose processes on the cephalothorax.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; eight eyes present in two rows, lateral eyes usually on tubercles; legs laterigrade, with two tarsal claws, legs I and II usually longer than III and IV; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Thomisidae [Misumenoidae, Stephanopinae, Stephanopseae, Thomisoidea]S93
    |--+--Epidius parvatiR14
    |  `--StephanopoidesR14
    |       |--S. brasilianaR14
    |       |--S. sexmaculataR14
    |       `--S. simoniR14
    `--+--Cebrenninus rugosusR14
       `--+--+--Geraesta hirtaR14
          |  `--+--Borboropactus Simon 1884R14, JD-S07 [Borboropactidae]
          |     |    `--B. bituberculatusR14
          |     `--Stephanopis Cambridge 1869R14, H09 [=Stephanopsis (l. c.) nec Bedot 1896 nec Lambert 1900H09]
          |          |--S. barbipes Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
          |          |--S. benhami Hogg 1909H09
          |          |--S. cambridgeiR14
          |          |--S. ditissimaR14
          |          |--S. longipesH09
          |          `--S. ornataB96
          `--+--Boliscus [Bominae]R14
             |    `--B. tuberculatusR14
             `--+--ThomisusR14
                `--+--TmarusR14
                   |    |--T. holmbergiR14
                   |    `--T. pigerK01
                   `--+--XysticusR14
                      `--+--Strophius [Strophiinae]R14
                         |    `--S. albofasciatusR14
                         `--AphantochilusR14 [AphantochilinaeJD-S07]
                              |--A. rogersiR14
                              `--A. taurifronsR14
Thomisidae incertae sedis:
  Cymbachina Bryant 1933PVD10
    `--*C. albobrunnea (Urquhart 1893)PVD10 [=Xysticus albobrunneaNS00]
  Saccodamus formivorusB96
  RunciniaJD-S07
    |--R. acuminataB96
    |--R. flavidaJD-S07
    `--R. grammicaR14
  Synema Simon 1864PVD10
    |--S. globosum (Fabricius 1775)K55 [incl. S. globosum var. nigriventris Kulczyński 1901K01]
    |--S. japonicumK01
    |--S. ornatumK01
    `--S. suteri Dahl 1907PVD10
  Heriaeus hirtus (Latreille 1819)K55
  Camaricus striatipes (Van Hass 1882) [=Platythomisus striatipes; incl. C. formosus Thorell 1887]T94
  ‘Pasithea’ Blackwall 1858 non Lea 1833S69
  Erissoides argentinus Mello-Leitão 1931M-L31
  BucraniumL-M-HM11
  TharpynaPVD10
    |--T. campestrata Koch 1874E07
    `--T. munda Koch 1875PVD10
  CymbachaEv95
    |--C. festiva Koch 1874E07
    `--C. sauciaR96
  Amyciaea Simon 1885T72
    |--A. albomaculataB96
    `--A. forticeps (Cambridge 1873) [=Amycle forticeps]T72
  Pistius Simon 1875T72
    |--P. barchensis Basu 1965T72
    |--P. bhadurii Basu 1965T72
    |--P. gangulyi Basu 1965T72
    |--P. kanikae Basu 1964T72
    |--P. robusta Basu 1965T72
    |--P. roonwali Basu 1964T72
    |--P. sreeponchamii Tikader 1962T72
    `--P. truncatusK01
  Rhynchognatha Thorell 1887K92
    `--R. cinerascens Thorell 1887K92
  MisumenaK01
  Daradius Sim. 1886K92
    |--D. bipunctatus (Thorell 1877) [=Pistius bipunctatus]K92
    `--D. callidus Thorell 1890K92
  Platythomisus Doleschall 1859T94
    |--*P. phryniformis Doleschall 1859D59
    `--P. jucundus Thorell 1894T94
  Sidymella Strand 1942PVD10
    |--S. angularis (Urquhart 1885)PVD10 [=Sparassus angularisNS00]
    |--S. angulata (Urquhart 1885)PVD10 [=Sparassus angulatusNS00]
    |--S. benhami (Hogg 1910)PVD10
    |--S. lampei (Strand 1913) [=Sidyma lampei]J98
    |--S. lobataB96
    `--S. longipes (Koch 1874)PVD10
  Misumenops Cambridge 1900T72
    |--M. asperatusGV09
    |--M. californicusP74
    |--M. gabrielensisP74
    |--M. khandalaensis Tikader 1965T72
    |--M. lepidusMC02
    |--M. nepenthicolaGV09
    |--M. rothiP74
    `--M. tricuspidatusR14
  DiaeaPVD10
  OxyptilaK55
  Monaeses Thorell 1870T72
    `--M. parvati Tikader 1963T72
  Thomisops pupaJD-S07
  PherecydesJD-S07
  Misumenoides Cambridge 1900T72
    |--M. deccanes Tikader 1965T72
    |--M. formosipesE95
    |--M. kripalaniae Tikader 1963T72
    `--M. shulli Tikader 1965T72
  PselloninaeS99
    |--Psellonus planusS99
    `--Pterelas Simon 1899S99
         `--*P. schauinslandi Simon 1899S99
  Facundia clara Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Fiducia tenuipes Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Filiolella argentata (Petrunkevitch 1942)S93
  Medela baltica Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Alcimochthes limbatusR14
  TitidiusR14
  DietinaeJD-S07
  StiphropodinaeJD-S07
  AnatoneP92
  AtheraP92
  OpisthophylaxP92
  HeterotmarusP92
  KomisumenaP92
  Angaeus Thorell 1881T72
    `--A. pantagonalis Pocock 1901T72
  Apollophanes Cambridge 1898T72
    `--A. bengalores Tikader 1963T72
  Bomis Koch 1873T72
    |--B. bengalensis Tikader 1962T72
    `--B. larvataM90
  Pasias Simon 1895T72
    |--P. maratha Tikader 1965T72
    `--P. puspagiri Tikader 1963T72

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[GV09] Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma & A. B. Kury. 2009. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 25: 1–30.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[M90] Main, B. Y. 1990. Spiders of the Shark Bay area, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 231–236. Western Australian Museum.

[M-L31] Mello-Leitão, C. F. de. 1931. Notas sobre arachnideos argentinos. Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias 3 (2): 83–97.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40–49.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R96] Rainbow, W. J. 1896. Descriptions of some new Araneidae of New South Wales. No. 6. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 320–344, pls 18–20.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[T72] Tikader, B. K. 1972. Spider fauna of India: catalogue and bibliography. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 91–101.

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