Thripida

 Reconstruction of the Cretaceous Gymnopollisthrips, by Enrique Peñalver.

Belongs within: Paraneoptera.
Contains: Lophioneurinae, Physothrips, Phlaeothripidae, Merothripidae, Aeolothripidae, Thripidae, Melanthripidae, Heterothripidae, Stenurothripidae.

The Thysanoptera, thrips, are a distinct group of often small insects with elongate wings bearing a fringe of long cilia. The most familiar members of the group are plant-feeders, but other thrips are fungus-feeding or predatory. The earliest Thysanoptera include the Triassic Triassothripidae and the Jurassic Karataothrips; these taxa retain a relatively elongate base to vein M which is more proximal in the wing than in crown Thysanoptera (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Holometabolous when?
Published 7 June 2013

A few days ago, I asked you to guess the problem with this T-shirt (from here):

‘Holometaboly’ refers to the life-cycle found in insects belonging to the clade Holometabola (i.e. flies, moths, wasps, beetles, etc.), where the larval stage is significantly different in appearance to the adult stage, and the body undergoes significant reconstruction during an intervening, quiescent pupal stage. Some of you may be aware that thrips are not members of the clade Holometabola, being instead more closely related to the Hemiptera, the sucking bugs. Nevertheless, thrips can indeed be described as holometabolous, as they have evolved a pupal stage in their life cycle independently of the holometabolans. So my problem with the slogan ‘Holometabolous before it was cool’ is not with the use of the word ‘holometabolous’.

It’s with the word ‘before’. The earliest known crown-group thrips, and thus the earliest known thrips that we can be reasonably certain was holometabolous (absent actual fossilised thrips pupae) is Liassothrips crassipes from the Late Jurassic (Shmakov 2008). In contrast, the earliest known crown-group holometabolans are stem-beetles and stem-neuropterans from the Early Permian, a good hundred million years or so before (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Even if we open the gates to potential stem-group thrips (which may or may not have been holometabolous), that doesn’t take us back any further than a potential tie with the Holometabola.

Liassothrips crassipes, from Schmakov (2008). Scale bar equals 1 mm.

So while thrips may be holometabolous, the possibility that they were so ‘before it was cool’ is fairly remote. Thrips are much more likely to have been late-comers to the holometaboly game.

Systematics of Thripida
<==ThripidaZ02
    |  i. s.: Westphalothripides oudardi Nel et al. 2012NR13
    |--Lophioneuridae [Lophioneurida, Lophioneurina]GE05
    |    |  i. s.: VitrialaZ02
    |    |         PsococicadellopsisZ02
    |    |         SurijokocyphaZ02
    |    |--ZoropsocinaeZ02
    |    |    |--Tschekardus hispidusZ02
    |    |    |--ZoropsocoidesZ02
    |    |    `--ZoropsocusGE05
    |    |         |--Z. itschetuensisGE05
    |    |         |--Z. pilosusK-P91
    |    |         `--Z. stanleyi Davis 1942F71
    |    `--LophioneurinaeZ02
    `--Thysanoptera [Aeolothripoidea, Physapoda, Thripina, Thripomorpha]GE05
         |  i. s.: Membrothrips indicusG01
         |         Aroidothrips longistylusG01
         |         Zaniothrips riciniG01
         |         Adventathrips inquilinusGE05
         |         Karphothrips dugdaleiM04
         |         EuthripsG24
         |           |--E. ulmifoliorum [incl. *E. consociata]K10
         |           |--E. abnormis Karny 1910K10
         |           |--E. atrataK10
         |           `--E. biguttaticorpus Girault 1924G24
         |         Isononeurothrips Bagnall 1915GM79
         |           |--I. jenseni Karny 1927GM79
         |           `--I. mediolineus (Bagnall 1915)G26, GM79 [=Thrips mediolineusG26]
         |         StylothripsG27b [incl. Paraphysopus Girault 1927G27b, G27a]
         |           `--S. brevipalpus Karny 1927GM79 [incl. *Paraphysopus burnsi Girault 1927G27a, G27b, G27a]
         |         PhysothripsG30
         |         Idolimothrips knoxi Girault 1927G27c
         |         Parafrankliniella nigripes Girault 1928G28
         |         LiassothripidaeZ02
         |         Linneothrips retanae (Mound & Marullo 1996)R-SN07
         |         AnthothripsR13
         |           |--A. acanthoscelis Karny 1910K10
         |           `--A. aculeataR13
         |         DolerothripsA78
         |           |--D. laticaudaA78
         |           `--D. nigricaudaA78
         |         Pachythrips subapterusA78
         |         RhyncothripsA78
         |           |--R. annulosusA78
         |           `--R. raoensisA78
         |         Rhytidothrips Karny 1910K10
         |           `--*R. bicornis Karny 1910K10
         |         Hindsiana Karny 1910K10
         |           `--*H. flavicincta Karny 1910K10
         |         TrichothripsK10
         |           |--T. caespitisK10
         |           `--T. dispar Karny 1910K10
         |         Bagnallia Karny 1910K10
         |           `--*B. capito Karny 1910K10
         |--TriassothripidaePL12
         |    |--Triassothrips virginicusGE05
         |    `--Kazachothrips triassicusPL12
         |--Karataothrips [Karataothripidae]GE05
         |    `--K. jurassicaGE05
         `--+--PhlaeothripidaePL12
            `--Terebrantia [Thripoidea]BMW13
                 |  i. s.: Uzelothrips Hood 1952MM96 [UzelothripidaePL12]
                 |           `--*U. scabrosus Hood 1952MM96
                 |--MerothripidaeBMW13
                 `--+--AeolothripidaeBMW13
                    `--+--ThripidaeBMW13
                       `--+--MelanthripidaeBMW13
                          `--+--+--Fauriellidae [Hemithripidae]PL12
                             |  `--HeterothripidaeBMW13
                             `--StenurothripidaeBMW13

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Lese majeste, new insects and robbery. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 182).

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. III. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 203–204).

[G27a] Girault, A. A. 1927a. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208–210).

[G27b] Girault, A. A. 1927b. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 211–212).

[G27c] Girault, A. A. 1927c. A discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 216–217).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221–224).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273–277).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K10] Karny, H. 1910. Neue Thysanopteren die Wiener Gegend. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines an der Universität Wiens 8 (2): 41–57.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248–257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143–148.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

Shmakov, A. S. 2008. The Jurassic thrips Liassothrips crassipes (Martynov, 1927) and its taxonomic position in the order Thysanoptera (Insecta). Paleontological Journal 42 (1): 47–52.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Thripida Fallen, 1914. (=Thysanoptera Haliday, 1836) The thrips. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 133–143. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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