Thyrididae

Striglina scitaria, copyright Vijay Anand Ismavel.

Belongs within: Obtectomera.

The Thyrididae are a primarily tropical and subtropical group of moths with a fine, reticulated wing pattern and a distinctive resting posture with the body raised at a steep angle and the wings expanded (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; head smooth-scaled; ocelli usually and chaetosemata always absent; antennae simple, dentate, or pectinate; proboscis present, naked, or rarely absent; maxillary palps minute, 1- or 2-segmented; labial palps porrect or recurved, sometimes very short and only 2-segmented; epiphysis present; tibial spurs 0-2-2, 0-2-3 or 0-2-4; male hind tibiae sometimes with expandable hair-pencil; fore wing with retinaculum in male a long slender hook on Sc, without wing-locking microtrichia; chorda and M stem absent from cell, all veins often separate, CuP absent, 1A+2A with basal fork or 2A vestigial; hind wing with 2 or 3 frenular bristles in female, all veins separate, Sc sometimes connected to Rs by R1 and approximated to, or fused with, Rs beyond cell, M2 arising nearer to M3 than to M1, CuP vestigial, 2 anal veins; tympanal organs absent. Egg of upright type. Larva without secondary setae, prothorax with 2 L setae, prolegs short, crochets uni- or irregularly biordinal, in circle or ellipse; tunnelling in twigs and stems, sometimes producing swellings, or in shelter between green leaves. Pupa with maxillary palps and pilifers defined, without dorsal abdominal spines; in silk-lined cell.

<==Thyrididae [Siculodidae, Thyridoidea]
| i. s.: Morova subfasciataP27
| Oxycophina theorinaNC91
| Meskea dyspterariaP27
| RhodoneuraC70
| |--R. myrsusalisH01
| `--R. tetragonataC70
| Brixia exusta [=Rhodoneura exusta]L41
| Thyris fenestrinaG20
|--SiculodinaeNC91
| |--Siculodes hydreutis Meyrick 1886M86
| |--Zeuzerodes maculataKP19
| `--AddaeaNC91
| |--A. polyphoralisNC91
| |--A. pusillaC70
| `--A. subtessellataNC91
`--+--CanaeaKP19
`--+--Pseudothyris sepulchralisKP19
`--StriglininaeNC91
|--Aglaopus pyrrhataNC91
`--StriglinaKP19
|--S. centiginosaC70
|--S. myrtaea [=Noctua myrtaea, S. myrtea; incl. Thermesia fenestrina, S. fenestrata]M86
|--S. pyrrhataC70
|--S. scitariaP27
`--S. suzukiiKP19

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L41] Liu, C. L. 1941. Revisional studies of the Vespidae of China I: the genus Pareumenes Saussure, with descriptions of six new species (Hymenoptera: Eumeninae). Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (6): 245–289.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

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