Small-leaved limes Tilia cordata, copyright Waugsberg.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.

The Tilioideae are a group of trees and shrubs from northern temperate regions and Central America. They have a fossil record extending to the Cretaceous with the earliest representatives being the fruit Etheridgea subglobosa and the leaf Tiliaephyllum dubium (Collinson et al. 1993). Species of the genus Tilia, the limes or linden trees, are large, deciduous trees with heart-shaped leaves. A number of species are grown as ornamentals or shade trees, and for their light and easily worked wood. Entelea arborescens, whau, is a small tree with dry, spinose fruit capsules endemic to New Zealand.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Stachyose, raffinose present; some species with siliceous leaves; petiole bundle annular, with medullary phloem strands and inverted bundles; leaves distichous, horizontally conduplicate; calyx free; androecium free, staminodia and stamens antepetalous, antesepalous sector empty; gynoecium opposite sepals; outer integument 3-4 cells across, inner integument 4-5 cells across, postament present; cotyledons folded; n = 41.

<==Tilioideae [Tiliaceae, Tiliales]BAN98
    |--Clappertonia ficifolia [=Honckenya ficifolia]P88
    |--Craigia yunnanensisBAN98
    |--Mollia Martius 1824D24
    |--Etheridgea subglobosa von Ettingshausen 1893CBH93
    |--Tiliaephyllum dubium Newberry 1895CBH93
    |--Discoidites borneensis Muller 1970CBH93
    |--Intratriporopollenites instructus Mai 1961CBH93
    |--Trichocarpus Schreb. 1789KC01
    |--Trichospermum Blume 1825KC01
    |    `--T. pleiostigmaB00
    |--Entelea Br. 1814A61
    |    `--E. arborescens Br. 1824 [incl. Apeiba australis Rich. 1832]A61
    |    |--L. divaricataC96
    |    |--L. seemanniiC96
    |    `--L. speciosaC96
         |--T. americanaH03
         |--T. argenteaF63
         |--T. cordataRB05
         |--T. europaeaBAN98
         |--T. glabra Ventenat 1800V00
         |--T. grandifoliaC55
         |--T. heterophylla Ventenat 1800V00
         |--T. miquelianaLO98
         |--T. mycrophylla Ventenat 1800V00
         |--T. parvifoliaW17
         |--T. platyphyllos Ventenat 1800V00
         |    |--T. p. var. platyphyllosV00
         |    `--T. p. var. corralinaV00
         |--T. pubescens [incl. T. caroliniana]V00
         |    |--T. p. var. pubescensV00
         |    `--T. p. var. leptophylla Ventenat 1800V00
         `--T. rotundifolia Ventenat 1800 [incl. T. alba, T. argentea]V00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C96] Clark, W. E. 1996. New species in the Anthonomus salvini group (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Anthonomini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 267–273.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[F63] Farkas, H. K. 1963. On the eriophyids from Hungary. IV. The description of new species (Acari, Eriophyidae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (3–4): 237–270.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765–772.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB05] Ruczyński, I., & W. Bogdanowicz. 2005. Roost cavity selection by Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, eastern Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 921–930.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[V00] Ventenat, C. 1800. Extrait d’une monographie du genre tilleul. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (35): 83–84.

[W17] Weber, C. A. 1917. Die Pflanzenwelt des Rabutzer Beckentons und ihre Entwicklung unter Bezugnahme auf Klima und geologische Vorgänge. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 3–50.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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