Small-billed tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris, copyright Dario Sanches.

Belongs within: Palaeognathae.

The Tinamidae, tinamous, are superficially partridge-like birds found in South America. They are the only living flighted members of the palaeognath clade. Tinamous are small to medium-sized, plump terrestrial birds with short, strong legs and a rudimentary tail (Internet Bird Collection). They are ground nesters with males largely responsible for caring for eggs and chicks.

<==Tinamidae [Crypturi, Crypturidae, Crypturinae, Dromaeomorphae, Pantinamidae, Tinami, Tinamiformes]
    |  i. s.: NothocercusJT12
    |           |--N. bonaparteiJT12
    |           |--N. juliusJT12
    |           `--N. nigrocapillusJT12
    |         Taoniscus nanusJT12
    |         Crypturus souiS18
    |           |--C. s. souiS18
    |           `--C. s. modestusS18
    |--+--+--Eudromia Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1832BKB15, B94 [Eudromiidae]
    |  |  |    |--E. elegansBKB15
    |  |  |    `--E. formosaJT12
    |  |  `--Tinamotis Vigors 1837JT12, B94 [Tinamotidae, Tinamotididae]
    |  |       |--T. ingoufiJT12
    |  |       `--T. pentlandiiJT12
    |  `--+--NothuraBKB15
    |     |    |--N. boraquiraJT12
    |     |    |--N. chacoensisJT12
    |     |    |--N. darwiniiBKB15
    |     |    |--N. maculosaBKB15
    |     |    `--N. minorJT12
    |     `--NothoproctaBKB15
    |          |  i. s.: N. ornataJT12
    |          |         N. pentlandiiJT12
    |          |         N. taczanowskiiJT12
    |          |--+--N. cinerascensBKB15
    |          |  `--Rhynchotus Spix 1825BKB15, B94 [Rhynchotidae]
    |          |       |--R. maculicollisJT12
    |          |       `--R. rufescensBKB15
    |          `--+--N. curvirostrisO93
    |             |--N. perdicariaBKB15
    |             |    |--N. p. perdicariaL81
    |             |    `--N. p. sanborniL81
    |             `--‘Tinamus’ taoBKB15
         |--Tinamus Hermann 1783BKB15, B94 [incl. Cryptura Illiger 1811B94]
         |    |--T. guttatusBKB15
         |    |--T. major (Gmelin 1789) [=Tetrao major]C04
         |    |    |--T. m. majorE52
         |    |    `--T. m. castaneicepsE52
         |    |--T. osgoodiJT12
         |    |--T. robustus [=T. major robustus]T62
         |    `--T. solitariusJT12
              |  i. s.: C. atrocapillusJT12
              |         C. bartlettiJT12
              |         C. berlepschiJT12
              |         C. boucardiJT12
              |         C. brevirostrisJT12
              |         C. casiquiareJT12
              |         C. cinereusJT12
              |         C. cinnamomeusJT12
              |         C. duidaeJT12
              |         C. erythropusJT12
              |         C. kerriaeJT12
              |         C. noctivagusJT12
              |         C. ptaritepuiJT12
              |         C. transfasciatusJT12
              |--C. souiBKB15
              |    |--C. s. souiE52
              |    `--C. s. panamensisE52
              `--+--+--C. strigulosusBKB15
                 |  `--C. undulatusBKB15
                 `--+--+--C. obsoletusBKB15
                    |  `--C. tataupaJT12
                    `--+--C. parvirostrisBKB15
                       `--C. variegatusBKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[O93] O’Hara, R. J. 1993. Systematic generalization, historical fate, and the species problem. Systematic Biology 42 (3): 231–246.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

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