Tipulidae

Orimarga mirabilis, copyright James V. Remsen.

Belongs within: Tipulomorpha.
Contains: Dicranota, Limnophilini, Cylindrotominae, Tipulinae, Limonia, Dicranomyia, Geranomyia, Orimarga.

The Tipulidae, crane flies, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly slender, long-legged flies that differ from all other flies in the presence of a V-shaped suture dividing the mesoscutum, and usually two complete anal veins in the wings (if present). Some classifications divide the Tipulidae between three families Tipulidae, Cylindrotomidae and Limoniidae; not only is the broader sense of Tipulidae used here but it seems possible that the subfamily ‘Limoniinae’ is paraphyletic to the Cylindrotominae and Tipulinae (e.g. Wiegmann et al. 2011). The Pediciini, historically included in the Limoniinae, are characterised by hairy eyes with short hairs between the ommatidia (Alexander & Byers 1981).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Typically slender-bodied. Ocelli absent. Mesonotum with transverse V-shaped suture. Wing elongate, rather narrow. Legs very long and slender, breaking readily at suture between trochanter and femur.

<==Tipulidae [Architipulidae, Eoasilidae, Limnobiinae, Limoniidae, Tipuloidea]G09
    |--Pediciini [Pediciidae]AB81
    |    |--Ula elegansWT11
    |    |--OrnithodesAB81
    |    |--Nasiternella hyperboreaAB81
    |    |--NipponomyiaO98
    |    |--DicranotaG09
    |    `--PediciaAB81
    |         |  i. s.: P. albovittaA16
    |         |         P. hannaiHP68
    |         |--P. (Pedicia) bellamyanaAB81
    |         `--P. (Tricyphona)AB81
    |              |--‘Tricyphona’ calcarA16
    |              |--‘Tricyphona’ inconstansA16
    |              `--P. (T.) proteaAB81
    `--+--LimnophiliniWT11
       `--+--CylindrotominaeWT11
          `--+--TipulinaeWT11
             `--Limoniinae [Lechriinae]O98
                  |--Lechria Skuse 1890S90 [LechriiniCM91]
                  |    `--*L. singularis Skuse 1890S90
                  `--Limoniini [Limnobina]AB81
                       |--LimoniaG09
                       |--Elliptera tennessaAB81
                       |--Thaumastoptera hynesiAB81
                       |--Atypophthalmus (Atypophthalmus) umbratusG09
                       |--DicranomyiaG09
                       |--TonnoiromyiaCM91
                       |--GeranomyiaCM91
                       |--OrimargaAB81
                       |--Thrypticomyia Skuse 1890S90
                       |    `--*T. aureipennis Skuse 1890S90
                       |--Libnotes Westwood 1876S90
                       |    `--L. strigivena (Walker 1861) [=Limnobia strigivena]S90
                       |--DicranoptychaAB81
                       |    |--D. germanaAB81
                       |    `--D. phallosomica Alexander 1937A40
                       |--AntochaWT11
                       |    |--A. obtusaWT11
                       |    `--A. saxicolaAB81
                       |--Helius St Fargeau 1825 (Helius)AB81, S90, AB91
                       |    |--H. (H.) albitarsisG09
                       |    |--H. (H.) darlingtonaeG09
                       |    `--H. (H.) flavipesG09
                       |--Discobola Osten-Sacken 1865 [incl. Trochobola Osten-Sacken 1868]S90
                       |    |--‘Trochobola’ annulataS90
                       |    |--‘Trochobola’ australis Skuse 1890S90
                       |    `--‘Trochobola’ caesareaS90
                       `--Rhipidia (Rhipidia)G09
                            |--R. (R.) leconteiG09 [=Limonia (Rhipidia) leconteiAB81]
                            |--R. (R.) multiguttataG09
                            |--R. (R.) subcostalisG09
                            `--R. (R.) willistonianaG09
Tipulidae incertae sedis:
  AphrophilaTE03
  ArchitipulaWT11
  StyringomyiaG09
    |--S. mayaG09
    `--S. paulistaG09
  Paralimnophila setulicornisCM91
  Adelphomyia minutaA16
  Oropeza venosaA16
  Xiphura frontalisA16
  Semnotes imperatoriaCM70
  DapanopteraO98
  MacalpinaP92
  TrichoneuraP92
  AllarithmiaP92
  CalobamonP92
  CritoneuraP92
  DasymolophilusP92
  ElectrolabisP92
  PalaeoeriopteraP92
  PalaeopoecilostolaP92
  TanymeraP92
  TanysphyraP92
  Leptorhina Stephens 1829 [incl. Megarhina St Fargeau 1825, Rhamphidia Meigen 1830]S90
    |--‘Rhamphidia’ communis Skuse 1890S90
    |--‘Rhamphidia’ fulvithorax Skuse 1890S90
    |--‘Rhamphidia’ niveitarsis Skuse 1890S90
    `--‘Rhamphidia’ venusta Skuse 1890S90
  Amalopis Haliday 1856 (see below for synonymy)S90
    |--A. congrua (Walker 1848) [=Limnobia congrua]S90
    |--A. inconstansS90
    `--A. nigritarsis Skuse 1890S90
  ArtarbaS90
  AnisomerinaS90
    |--Anisomera obscuraG20
    |--CladolipesS90
    `--PenthopteraS90

Amalopis Haliday 1856 [incl. Bophrosia Rondani 1856, Crunobia Kolenati 1860, Nasiterna Wallengren 1881 non Wagler 1832; Amalopina]S90

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[A40] Alexander, C. P. 1940. New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern China. Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (1): 1–28.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[S90] Skuse, F. A. A. 1890. Diptera of Australia. Part VII.—The Tipulidae brevipalpi. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (3): 757–892, pls 21–24.

[TE03] Taylor, R. C., & R. M. Ewers. 2003. The invertebrate fauna inhabiting tree holes in a red beech (Nothofagus fusca) tree. Weta 25: 24–28.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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