Tipulinae

Tipula oleracea, copyright David Nicholls.

Belongs within: Tipulidae.

The Tipulinae are a group of mostly large crane flies, with wing lengths commonly over 10 mm. The legs are particularly long and slender in members of the genera Dolichopeza, Megistocera and Brachypremna; other genera have stouter albeit still long legs (Alexander & Byers 1981). Megistocera have antennae with only six flagellomeres and wings with a strongly angulated R2+3 and crossvein between M and CuA1 (Gelhaus 2009).

The cosmopolitan genus Tipula includes about 2500 species, often with an opaque, pruinose coloration, characterised by a relatively long subcostal vein meeting R1 beyond the origin of Rs. However, females of some species of the Neotropical genus Eumicrotipula are subapterous and flightless (Gelhaus 2009).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Size large; body length commonly over 8–10 mm; wing commonly over 10 mm, usually much larger. Terminal segment of palpus elongate; nasus usually distinct. Flagellum commonly with eleven segments. Wing with Sc1 usually atrophied or incomplete; CuA slightly constricted at branching of CuA1 and CuA2. Larva with spiracular disc bordered by six (rarely eight) usually subconical lobes usually arranged with two dorsally, two dorsolaterally, and two below spiracles; these lobes sometimes short and blunt or sclerotised and hook-like.

<==Tipulinae [Tipulini]G09
|--Megistocera longipennisG09
|--Brachypremna dispellensG09
|--Clytocosmus helmsiCM91
|--Ptilogyna ramicornisCM91
|--StygeropsisA16
|--PlusiomyiaCM70
|--MacromastixCM70
|--PselliophoraG09
| |--P. margaritaG09
| `--P. xanthopimplina Enderlein 1921 [incl. P. quadrivittata Edwards 1921]A40
|--HolorusiaAB81
| |--H. hesperaG09
| `--H. rubiginosaAB81
|--DolichopezaAB81
| |--D. americanaWT11
| `--D. subalbipesTW05
|--PrionoceraAB81
| |--P. dimidiataAB81
| |--P. gracilistylaHP68
| `--P. parriiG09
|--CtenacroscelisA40
| |--C. clavipes Edwards 1921A40
| |--C. calliergon Alexander 1940A40
| `--C. serratusA40
|--DictenidiaA40
| |--D. luteicostalisA40
| | |--D. l. luteicostalisA40
| | `--D. l. longisector Alexander 1940A40
| `--D. stalactitica Alexander 1940A40
|--IschnotomaG09
| | i. s.: I. eburneaG09
| | I. rubriventrisCM91
| |--I. (Ischnotoma) fagetorumG09
| |--I. (Icriomastix) jujuyensisG09
| `--I. (Neotipula) mayaG09
|--OzodiceraG09
| |--O. (Ozodicera)G09
| | |--O. (O.) cinereipennisG09
| | `--O. (O.) eurystylaG09
| `--O. (Dihexaclonus)G09
| |--O. (D.) macracanthaG09
| `--O. (D.) panamensisG09
|--ZelandotipulaG09
| |--Z. associansG09
| |--Z. furciferaG09
| |--Z. gracilipesG09
| |--Z. laevisG09
| |--Z. novaraeG09
| `--Z. sinuosaG09
|--LeptotarsusG09 [incl. LongurioAB81]
| | i. s.: L. imperatoriusCM91
| | L. testaceusG09
| |--‘Longurio’ (Longurio) fulvus Edwards 1916A40
| |--L. (Pehlkea)G09
| | |--L. (P.) colombianusG09
| | `--L. (P.) reginaG09
| `--L. (Tanypremna)G09
| |--L. (T.) incompletusG09
| `--L. (T.) opilioG09
|--CtenophoraAB81
| | i. s.: C. apicataG09
| | C. atrataR26
| | C. flaveolataR26
| | C. perjocosa Alexander 1940A40
| | C. pselliophoroidesA40
| |--C. (Ctenophora) bimaculata [=Tipula (C.) bimaculata]G20
| |--C. (Tanyptera)AB81
| | |--‘Tanyptera’ antica Alexander 1938A40
| | `--C. (T.) dorsalisAB81
| `--C. (Phoroctenia) vittataAB81
| |--C. v. vittataAB81
| `--C. v. angustipennisAB81
|--Nephrotoma Meigen 1803 [incl. Pachyrrhina Macquart 1834, Pales Meigen 1800 (n. n.) non Robineau-Desvoidy 1830]A16
| |--*N. dorsalisA16 [=Tipula (Nephrotoma) dorsalisG20]
| |--N. australasiaeZS10
| |--‘Pachyrrhina’ crocataK01
| |--N. eucera [=Pachyrrhina eucera]A16
| |--N. ferrugineaG09
| |--N. flavescensV09
| |--‘Pachyrrhina’ histrioK01
| |--N. incurvaA16
| |--N. lugensA16
| |--N. macroceraA16
| |--N. pedunculataA16
| |--N. penumbra Alexander 1916A16
| |--‘Pachyrrhina’ scurraK01
| `--N. vittulaA16
`--Tipula Linnaeus 1758A16
| i. s.: T. alta Doane 1912A16
| T. angulata Loew 1864 [incl. T. decora Doane 1901]A16
| T. angustipennis Loew 1863A16
| T. annulata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. apicalis Loew 1863A16
| T. appendiculata Loew 1863A16
| T. atrata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. australis Doane 1901A16
| T. balioptera Loew 1863A16
| T. bella Loew 1863A16
| T. besselsi Osten Sacken 1876A16
| T. bicornis Forbes 1891A16
| T. brevicornis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. californica [=Pachyrrhina californica]A16
| T. ‘californica’ Doane 1912 non Pachyrrhina californicaA16
| T. canadensis Loew 1864A16
| T. carinifronsHP68
| T. cayuga Alexander 1916A16
| T. centralis Loew 1864A16
| T. cincta Loew 1863A16
| T. cincticornisA16
| T. collaris [=Pachyrrhina collaris]A16
| T. contaminata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. cornicina Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. crocata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. culiciformisL02
| T. cunctans Say 1823 [incl. T. casta Loew 1863, T. infuscata Loew 1863]A16
| T. dietziana Alexander 1916A16
| T. discolor Loew 1863A16
| T. fallax Loew 1863A16
| T. fascipennis Meigen 1818A16
| T. febrilis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. fenestrarumL02
| T. flavescens Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. florilega Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. fragilis Loew 1863 [incl. T. suspecta Loew 1863]A16
| T. fraterna Loew 1864A16
| T. fuliginosa (Say 1823) [=Ctenophora fuliginosa; incl. T. speciosa Loew 1863]A16
| T. fungorumL02
| T. grata Loew 1863A16
| T. hebes Loew 1863A16
| T. hermannia Alexander 1916 [=T. fasciata Loew 1863 non Linnaeus 1767]A16
| T. hiemalisL02
| T. histrioR26
| T. hortorum Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. ignobilis Loew 1863A16
| T. imperfecta Alexander 1916A16
| T. irrorataF92
| T. jejunaA16
| T. johnsoniana Alexander 1916A16
| T. juniperina Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. kennicotti Alexander 1916A16
| T. latipennis Loew 1864A16
| T. littoralis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. loewiana Alexander 1916A16
| T. longicornis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. longiventris Loew 1863A16
| T. lunata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. macrocephala Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. macrolabis Loew 1864A16
| T. macrosterna [=Pachyrrhina macrosterna]A16
| T. mainensis Alexander 1916 [incl. T. laevigata ms]A16
| T. mandan Alexander 1916A16
| T. marci Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. maximaW01
| T. megaura Doane 1901A16
| T. mingwe Alexander 1916A16
| T. monilis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. morrisoni Alexander 1916A16
| T. motatrix Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. nigra Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. nobilis [=Pachyrrhina nobilis]A16
| T. notata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. pachyrhinoides Alexander 1916A16
| T. pallida Loew 1863A16
| T. palustris Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. parshleyi Alexander 1916A16
| T. pectinicornis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. penicillata Alexander 1916A16
| T. penobscot Alexander 1916A16
| T. perlongipes Johnson 1909A16
| T. piliceps Alexander 1916A16
| T. pinnicornis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. plumosa Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. polymera [=Pachyrrhina polymera]A16
| T. praecisa Loew 1872A16
| T. pratensis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. pubera Loew 1864A16
| T. putris Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. quayliiAB81
| T. rangiferina Alexander 1916A16
| T. regelationis Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. replicata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. rostrataL02
| T. seminole Alexander 1916A16
| T. septentrionalis Loew 1863A16
| T. serrulata Loew 1864A16
| T. serta Loew 1863A16
| T. subfasciata Loew 1863A16
| T. submaculata Loew 1863 [incl. T. bidens ms]A16
| T. sulphureaA16
| T. taughannock Alexander 1916A16
| T. tephrocephala Loew 1864A16
| T. ternaria Loew 1864A16
| T. terrestris Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. tesselata Loew 1863A16
| T. tetrapteraR26
| T. tremula Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. trinidadensis [=Pachyrrhina trinidadensis]A16
| T. triton Alexander 1916A16
| T. trivittataG09
| T. tuscarora Alexander 1916 [incl. T. hamata ms]A16
| T. umbrosa Loew 1863A16
| T. unimaculata [=Pachyrrhina unimaculata]A16
| T. valida Loew 1863A16
| T. variegata Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. varipennisI92
| T. vernalisK01
| T. versicolor Loew 1863A16
| T. vibratoria Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. (Tipula)G09
| |--T. (T.) oleracea Linnaeus 1758G09, L58
| `--T. (T.) paludosaAB81
|--T. (Acutipula)A40
| |--T. (A.) graphipteraA40
| |--T. (A.) megaleucaA40
| |--T. (A.) phaeoleuca Alexander 1940A40
| `--T. (A.) stenacantha Alexander 1937A40
|--T. (Angarotipula) illustrisG09
|--T. (Bellardina) cydippeG09
|--T. (Cinctotipula Alexander 1916)A16
| `--T. (*C.) algonquin Alexander 1916A16
|--T. (Eumicrotipula)G09
| |--T. (E.) armillatusG09
| |--T. (E.) ballouiG09
| |--T. (E.) exilisG09
| |--T. (E.) ligulipenicillataG09
| |--T. (E.) michoacanaG09
| |--T. (E.) moniliferaG09
| `--T. (E.) virgulataG09
|--T. (Formotipula)A40
| |--T. (*F.) holosericaA40
| |--T. (F.) spoliatrixA40
| `--T. (F.) vindex Alexander 1940A40
|--T. (Lunatipula)G09
| |--T. (L.) dorsimaculaG09
| |--T. (L.) monticola Alexander 1916G09, A16
| `--T. (L.) triplexG09
|--T. (Microtipula) [incl. Nephrotomodes]G09
| |--T. (M.) amazonicaG09
| |--T. (M.) armatipennisG09
| |--T. (M.) aymaraG09
| |--T. (M.) contemplataG09
| |--T. (M.) smilodonG09
| `--T. (M.) smithiG09
|--T. (Nesotipula) pribiloviaAB81
|--T. (Nippotipula)AB81
| |--T. (N.) abdominalisAB81
| `--T. (N.) sinica Alexander 1935A40
|--T. (Oreomyza)A40
| |--T. (O.) famula Alexander 1935A40
| `--T. (O.) tetramelania Alexander 1935A40
|--T. (Rhiphidia) maculata Linnaeus 1758G20, L58
|--T. (Schummelia)A40
| |--T. (S.) angustiligulaA40
| | |--T. a. angustiligulaA40
| | `--T. a. mokanensis Alexander 1940A40
| |--T. (S.) spectata Alexander 1940A40
| `--T. (S.) variicornisA40
|--T. (Tipulodinodes) lacteipesAB81
|--T. (Trichotipula Alexander 1916)A16
| `--T. (*T.) oropezoidesA16
|--T. (Triplicitipula) flavoumbrosaS96
|--T. (Vestiplex) bifida Alexander 1921A40
`--T. (Yamatotipula)G09
|--T. (Y.) caloptera Loew 1863AB81, A16
|--T. (Y.) eluta Loew 1863G09, A16
|--T. (Y.) nova Walker 1848A40
|--T. (Y.) noveboracensisG09
|--T. (Y.) poliocephala Alexander 1921A40
|--T. (Y.) strepens Loew 1863G09, A16
`--T. (Y.) tricolorG09

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[A40] Alexander, C. P. 1940. New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern China. Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (1): 1–28.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *