Titanosauria

Femora of Antarctosaurus wichmannianus, copyright Beatrice Murch.

Belongs within: Camarasauromorpha.
Contains: Eutitanosauria.

The Titanosauria are a clade of sauropods that has been defined as all taxa closer to Saltasaurus than Brachiosaurus. Members of this clade are characterised by a prominent caudolateral expansion of the caudal end of the sternal plate, and an extremely robust radius and ulna with the radius proximal width at least 33% of its length (Upchurch et al. 2004). Many titanosaurs, placed in the clade Lithostrotia,
possessed a dorsal armour of scattered dermal osteoderms.

<==Titanosauria [Titanosauridae, Titanosaurinae, Titanosauroidea]
    |–Andesaurus Calvo & Bonaparte 1991 WU03, UBD04 [Andesauridae]
    |    `–A. delgadoi Calvo & Bonaparte 1991 UBD04
    |–Phuwiangosaurus Martin, Buffetaut & Suteethorn 1994 UBD04
    |    `–P. sirindhornae Martin, Buffetaut & Suteethorn 1994 UBD04
    `–+–Austrosaurus Longman 1933 UBD04
       |    `–A. mckillopi Longman 1933 UBD04
       `–Lithostrotia WU03
            |  i. s.: Epachthosaurus Powell 1990 WU03, UBD04
            |           `–E. sciuttoi Powell 1990 UBD04
            |         Aeolosaurus Poell 1987 UBD04
            |           `–A. rionegrinus Powell 1987 UBD04
            |         Ampelosaurus Le Loeuff 1995 UBD04
            |           `–A. atacis Le Loeuff 1995 UBD04
            |         Jainosaurus Hunt, Lockley et al. 1994 UBD04
            |           `–J. septentrionalis (Huene & Matley 1933) [=Antarctosaurus septentrionalis] UBD04
            |         Jiangshanosaurus Tang, Kang et al. 2001 UBD04
            |           `–J. lixianensis Tang, Kang et al. 2001 UBD04
            |         Laplatasaurus Huene 1929 UBD04
            |           `–L. araukanicus Huene 1929 [=Titanosaurus araukanicus] WU03
            |         Magyarosaurus Huene 1932 UBD04
            |           `–M. dacus (Nopcsa 1915) (see below for synonymy) UBD04
            |         Paralititan Smith, Lamanna et al. 2001 SL01
            |           `–*P. stromeri Smith, Lamanna et al. 2001 SL01
            |         Rocasaurus Salgado & Azpilicueta 2000 UBD04
            |           `–R. muniozi Salgado & Azpilicueta 2000 UBD04
            |         Titanosaurus Lydekker 1877 WU03
            |           |–*T. indicus Lydekker 1877 (n. d.) WU03
            |           |–T. blanfordi Lydekker 1879 (n. d.) WU03
            |           |–T. falloti Hoffet 1942 (n. d.) [=Tangvayosaurus falloti] WU03
            |           |–T. madagascariensis Depéret 1896 (n. d.) [=Laplatasaurus madagascariensis] WU03
            |           `–T. rahioliensis Mathur & Srivastava 1987 (n. d.) WU03
            |–+–Gondwanatitan Kellner & de Azevedo 1999 UBD04
            |  |    `–G. faustoi Kellner & de Azevedo 1999 UBD04
            |  `–+–Eutitanosauria WU03
            |     `–Isisaurus Wilson & Upchurchu 2003 WU03
            |          `–*I. colberti (Jain & Bandyopadhyay 1997) [=Titanosaurus colberti] WU03
            `–+–Antarctosaurus Huene 1929 CRF01, WU03
               |    |–*A. wichmannianus Huene 1929 WU03, UBD04
               |    |–A. brasiliensis Arid & Vizotto 1971 (n. d.) UBD04
               |    |–A. giganteus Huene 1929 (n. d.) UBD04
               |    `–A. jaxartensis Riabinin 1939 (n. d.) UBD04
               `–+–Malawisaurus Jacobs, Winkler et al. 1993 UBD04
                  |    `–M. dixeyi (Haughton 1928) [=Gigantosaurus dixeyi] UBD04
                  `–Nemegtosauridae UBD04
                       |–Quaesitosaurus Kurzanov & Bannikov 1983 CRF01, UBD04
                       |    `–Q. orientalis Kurzanov & Bannikov 1983 UBD04
                       `–+–Rapetosaurus Curry Rogers & Forster 2001 CRF01
                          |    `–*R. krausei Curry Rogers & Forster 2001 CRF01
                          `–Nemegtosaurus Nowinski 1971 CRF01, UBD04
                               |–N. mongoliensis Nowinski 1971 UBD04
                               `–N. pachi Dong 1977 (n. d.) UBD04

Titanosauria incertae sedis:
  Aegyptosaurus Stromer 1932 UBD04
    `–A. baharijensis Stromer 1932 UBD04
  Aepysaurus elephantinus Gervais 1853 (n. d.) N85, UBD04
  Algoasaurus bauri Broom 1904 (n. d.) N85, UBD04
  Campylodoniscus Kuhn 1961 (n. d.) N85, UBD04
    `–*C. ameghinoi (Huene 1929) [=Campylodon ameghinoi] UBD04
  Macrurosaurus semnus Seeley 1869 (n. d.) N85, UBD04
  Tangvayosaurus Allain, Taquet et al. 1999 UBD04
    `–T. hoffeti Allain, Taquet et al. 1999 UBD04
  Iuticosaurus Le Loeuff 1993 (n. d.) WU03
    |–*I. valdensis (Huene 1929) (n. d.) [=Titanosaurus valdensis] UBD04
    `–I. lydekkeri (Huene 1929) (n. d.) [=Titanosaurus lydekkeri] WU03
  Hypselosaurus Matheron 1869 D07
    `–H. priscus Matheron 1869 (n. d.) APS03
  Argentinosaurus Bonaparte & Coria 1993 UBD04
    `–A. huinculensis Bonaparte & Coria 1993 UBD04
  Chubutisaurus Corro 1974 UBD04
    `–C. insignis Corro 1974 UBD04
  Mongolosaurus haplodon Gilmore 1933 (n. d.) WS98, UBD04
  Agustinia Bonaparte 1999 UBD04
    `–A. ligabuei Bonaparte 1999 UBD04
  Huabeisaurus Pang & Cheng 2000 UBD04
    `–H. allocotus Pang & Cheng 2000 UBD04
  Janenschia Wild 1991 UBD04
    `–J. robusta (Fraas 1908) [=Gigantosaurus robustus, Tornieria robustus] UBD04
  Venenosaurus Tidwell, Carpenter & Meyer 2001 UBD04
    `–V. dicrocei Tidwell, Carpenter & Meyer 2001 UBD04
  Bruhathkayosaurus Yadagiri & Ayyasami 1989 D07
    `–B. matleyi Yadagiri & Ayyasami 1987 (n. d.) UBD04
  Bonitasaura Apesteguia 2004 D07
    `–B. salgadoi D07

Magyarosaurus dacus (Nopcsa 1915) [=Titanosaurus dacus; incl. M. hungaricus Huene 1932, M. transsylvanicus Huene 1932] UBD04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APS03] Allain, R., & X. Pereda Suberbiola. 2003. Dinosaurs of France. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (1): 27–44.

[CRF01] Curry Rogers, K., & C. A. Forster. 2001. The last of the dinosaur titans: A new sauropod from Madagascar. Nature 412: 530–534.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[SL01] Smith, J. B., M. C. Lamanna, K. J. Lacovara, P. Dodson, J. R. Smith, J. C. Poole, R. Giegengack & Y. Attia. 2001. A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science 292: 1704–1706.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[WS98] Wilson, J. A. & P. C. Sereno. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2 Suppl.): 1–68.

[WU03] Wilson, J. A., & P. Upchurch. 2003. A revision of Titanosaurus Lydekker (Dinosauria—Sauropoda), the first dinosaur genus with a ‘Gondwanan’ distribution. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1 (3): 125–160.

Last updated: 6 August 2017.

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