Femora of Antarctosaurus wichmannianus, copyright Beatrice Murch.

Belongs within: Camarasauromorpha.
Contains: Lithostrotia.

The Titanosauria are a clade of sauropods that has been defined as all taxa closer to Saltasaurus than Brachiosaurus. Members of this clade are characterised by a prominent caudolateral expansion of the caudal end of the sternal plate, and an extremely robust radius and ulna with the radius proximal width at least 33% of its length (Upchurch et al. 2004). Many titanosaurs, placed in the clade Lithostrotia,
possessed a dorsal armour of scattered dermal osteoderms.

<==Titanosauria [Titanosauridae, Titanosaurinae, Titanosauroidea]
    |--Andesaurus Calvo & Bonaparte 1991WU03, UBD04 [Andesauridae]
    |    `--A. delgadoi Calvo & Bonaparte 1991UBD04
    |--Phuwiangosaurus Martin, Buffetaut & Suteethorn 1994UBD04
    |    `--P. sirindhornae Martin, Buffetaut & Suteethorn 1994UBD04
       `--Austrosaurus Longman 1933UBD04
            `--A. mckillopi Longman 1933UBD04
Titanosauria incertae sedis:
  Aegyptosaurus Stromer 1932UBD04
    `--A. baharijensis Stromer 1932UBD04
  Aepysaurus elephantinus Gervais 1853 (n. d.)N85, UBD04
  Algoasaurus bauri Broom 1904 (n. d.)N85, UBD04
  Campylodoniscus Kuhn 1961 (n. d.)N85, UBD04
    `--*C. ameghinoi (Huene 1929) [=Campylodon ameghinoi]UBD04
  Macrurosaurus semnus Seeley 1869 (n. d.)N85, UBD04
  Tangvayosaurus Allain, Taquet et al. 1999UBD04
    `--T. hoffeti Allain, Taquet et al. 1999UBD04
  Iuticosaurus Le Loeuff 1993 (n. d.)WU03
    |--*I. valdensis (Huene 1929) (n. d.) [=Titanosaurus valdensis]UBD04
    `--I. lydekkeri (Huene 1929) (n. d.) [=Titanosaurus lydekkeri]WU03
  Hypselosaurus Matheron 1869D07
    `--H. priscus Matheron 1869 (n. d.)APS03
  Argentinosaurus Bonaparte & Coria 1993UBD04
    `--A. huinculensis Bonaparte & Coria 1993UBD04
  Chubutisaurus Corro 1974UBD04
    `--C. insignis Corro 1974UBD04
  Mongolosaurus haplodon Gilmore 1933 (n. d.)WS98, UBD04
  Agustinia Bonaparte 1999UBD04
    `--A. ligabuei Bonaparte 1999UBD04
  Janenschia Wild 1991UBD04
    `--J. robusta (Fraas 1908) [=Gigantosaurus robustus, Tornieria robustus]UBD04
  Venenosaurus Tidwell, Carpenter & Meyer 2001UBD04
    `--V. dicrocei Tidwell, Carpenter & Meyer 2001UBD04
  Bruhathkayosaurus Yadagiri & Ayyasami 1989D07
    `--B. matleyi Yadagiri & Ayyasami 1987 (n. d.)UBD04
  Adamantinasaurus mezzaliraiF12
  Amazonsaurus maranhensisF12
  Baurutitan britoiF12
  Bonatitan reigiF12
  Borealosaurus wimaniF12
  Daxiatitan binglingiF12
  Erketu ellisoniF12
  Fusuisaurus zhaoiF12
    |--H. liujiaxiaensisF12
    `--H. ruyangensisP10
  Ligabuesaurus leanzaiF12
  Malarguesaurus florenciaeF12
  Muyelensaurus pecheniF12
  Puertasaurus reuiliF12
  Rinconsaurus caudamimusF12
  Uberabatitan riberoiF12
  Gobititan shenzhouensisP10
  Ruyangosaurus giganteusP10
  Baotianmansaurus henanensisP10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APS03] Allain, R., & X. Pereda Suberbiola. 2003. Dinosaurs of France. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (1): 27–44.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[F12] Fanti, F. 2012. Cretaceous continental bridges, insularity, and vicariance in the Southern Hemisphere: which route did the dinosaurs take? In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 883–911. Springer.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[P10] Paul, G. S. 2010. Dinosaurs: A Field Guide. A & C Black.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[WS98] Wilson, J. A. & P. C. Sereno. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2 Suppl.): 1–68.

[WU03] Wilson, J. A., & P. Upchurch. 2003. A revision of Titanosaurus Lydekker (Dinosauria—Sauropoda), the first dinosaur genus with a ‘Gondwanan’ distribution. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1 (3): 125–160.

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