Knobbed triton Charonia lampas, copyright Philippe Guillaume.
Belongs within: Latrogastropoda.
Contains: Mataxidae, Personidae, Cymatiinae, Bursidae, Ranellidae, Tonnidae, Cassidae, Ficus.

The Tonnoidea are a group of often large marine gastropods with particularly large larval shells, reaching diameters up to 5.4 mm, and a well-developed periostracum that extends past the apertural opening during the larval stage (Bandel & Dockery 2012). Members of the Tonnoidea are predators, often feeding on echinoderms. They include the Ficidae, fig shells, a small family of tropical shallow-water or abyssal marine gastropods that take their name from the roughly fig-shaped appearance of their shells. Charonia, the tritons, have fusiform shells that can reach giant sizes with the giant triton C. tritonis growing over half a metre in length.

<==Tonnoidea [Canalifera, Cassidida, Cassina, Cassoidea, Doliacea, Tonnacea] BD12
|–Charonia Gistel 1847 S11, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–*C. tritonis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, BW09 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–C. capax Finlay 1926 WG71 [incl. C. capax euclioides Finlay 1927 F27, P61, F27]
|    |–‘Tritonium’ carinatum [incl. T. angulosum] C64
|    |–‘Triton’ davidsoni d’Archiac & Haime 1854 [=Cancellaria davidsoni] PH90
|    |–C. euclia Hedley 1914 WG71
|    |–‘Triton’ lacunatum Mighels 1845 J49
|    |–C. laevigata (Lamarck 1816) S11
|    |–C. lampas (Linnaeus 1758) WG71
|    |–‘Tritonium’ moerchianum C64
|    |–C. opis C60
|    |–C. powelli Cotton 1956 WG71
|    |–‘Triton’ pseudospengleri [incl. T. minimus] H86b
|    |–‘Tritonium’ rombergi C64
|    |–C. rubicunda (Perry 1811) WG71 [=Septa rubicunda F27, Cymatium rubicundum H09]
|    |–‘Tritonium’ rutilum C64
|    |–C. sauliae Reeve 1844 WG71
|    |–‘Triton’ spengleri H86a
|    `–C. woodsi (Tenison-Woods 1879) C60, F71 [=Triton woodsii F71, Austrotriton woodsi C60]
`–+–+–+–Eosassiidae [Eosassinidae] BD12
|  |  |    |–Eosassia Bandel & Dockery 2012 BD12
|  |  |    |    `–*E. gwinae (Dockery 1993) [=Gyrineum gwinae] BD12
|  |  |    `–Sassia Bellardi 1837 S11, BD12
|  |  |         |–*S. apenninica (Sassi 1827) BD12
|  |  |         |–S. centrosum (Conrad 1863) P12
|  |  |         |–S. kamphyla (Watson 1883) S11
|  |  |         `–S. parkinsonia HS01
|  |  `–Fusitriton Cossmann 1903 S11, WG71
|  |       |–*F. cancellatum [=Triton cancellatum] P61
|  |       |–F. laudandus Finlay 1927 P61
|  |       |–F. magellanicus (Röding 1798) S11
|  |       |–F. oregonensis (Redfield 1848) O27 (see below for synonymy)
|  |       `–F. retiolus (Hidley 1914) S11 [=Priene retiolum F27]
|  `–+–+–Personidae ZLK11
|     |  `–Thalassocyon Barnard 1960 S11, BD12 [Thalassocynidae, Thalassocyonidae]
|     |       `–*T. bonus Barnard 1960 BD12
|     `–Cymatiidae BR17
|          |–Cymatiinae S11
|          `–Argobuccininae BR17
|               |–Argobuccinum Herrmannsen 1846 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
|               |    |–*A. argus (Gmelin 1791) P61, F27 [=Murex argus P61]
|               |    |–A. cancellatum [=Priene cancellata, Tritonium (Buccinum) cancellatum] C64
|               |    |–‘Priene’ nodosa C64
|               |    |–A. pustulosum HS01
|               |    |–A. succinctum (Linnaeus 1771) H09 (see below for synonymy)
|               |    |–A. tumidum (Dunker 1862) [=A. pustulosum tumidum HS01]
|               |    `–A. vexillum Sowerby 1835 WG71 [=Ranella vexillum O27]
|               `–Gyrineum Link 1807 BR17, BR05 [Gyrineinae]
|                    |–*G. gyrinum (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
|                    |–G. affine (Broderip 1833) [=Ranella affinis] H09
|                    |–G. lacunatum (Mighels 1845) MG-H11
|                    |–G. longicaudatum Beu 1998 BC01
|                    |–G. pulchellum (Forbes 1852) [=Ranella pulchella] H09
|                    |–G. ranelloides (Reeve 1844) [=Triton ranelloides] H09
|                    `–G. rubicola (Perry 1811) [=Biplex rubicola] H09
`–+–+–Bursidae ZLK11
|  `–Ranellidae ZLK11
`–+–+–Tonnidae ZLK11
|  `–Cassidae S11
`–Ficidae [Ficoidea] TTE93
|–Ficus ZLK11
|–Protopirula capensis (Rennie 1931) TTE93
`–Priscoficus TTE93
|–P. bicarinatus (Briart & Cornet 1870) TTE93
`–P. obtusus (Marshall 1917) TTE93

Tonnoidea incertae sedis:
Colombellinidae [Columbellinidae] BD12
|–Alariopsis clathrata Gemmellaro 1878 TTE93
|–Zittelia Gemmellaro 1869 BD12, BR17 [Zitteliidae]
|    `–*Z. cypraeaeformis Gemmellaro 1869 BR17
|–Colombellina d’Orbigny 1843 [=Columbellina Geinitz 1846] BR17
|    `–*C. monodactylus (Leymerie 1842) [=Rostellaria monodactylus] BR17
|–Columbellaria Rolle 1861 [Columbellariidae] BD12
|    |–*C. corallina (Quenstedt 1852) [=Cassis corallina] BR17
|    `–C. bathonica Cossmann 1913 TTE93
`–Neocolombellina Bandel & Dockery 2012 BD12
|–*N. cancellata (Dockery 1993) BD12
|–N. americana (Wade 1926) [=Colombellina americana] BD12
`–N. carlea (Dockery 1993) [=Gyrineum carleum] BD12
Mataxidae BD12
Laubierinidae [Laubierinioidea, Laubierinoidea] BR17
|–Akibumia orientalis (Schepman 1909) MG-H11
|–Laubierina Warén & Bouchet 1990 BR05
|    `–*L. peregrinator Warén & Bouchet 1990 BR17
`–Pisanianura Rovereto 1899 BR17, BR05 [Pisanianuridae, Pisanianurinae]
`–*P. inflata (Brocchi 1814) [=Murex inflatus] BR17

Argobuccinum Herrmannsen 1846 BR05 [incl. Paralagena Dall 1904 H08, Priene Adams & Adams 1858 F27; Argobuccininae]

Argobuccinum succinctum (Linnaeus 1771) H09 [=Murex succinctus H09, A. (*Paralagena) succinctum H08; incl. M. clandestinus Chemnitz 1795 H08]

Charonia Gistel 1847 S11, BR05 [=Triton Montfort 1810 nec Linnaeus 1758 nec Laurenti 1768 BR05, Tritonium Röding 1798 non Müller 1776 BR05; Charoniacea, Charoniidae BR17, Charoniinae, Tritoniacea, Tritonidae, Tritoninae]

*Charonia tritonis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, BW09 [=Murex tritonis BR05, Nyctilochus tritonis BR05, Septa tritonis H09, *Triton tritonis BR17, *Tritonium tritonis BR17]

Fusitriton oregonensis (Redfield 1848) O27 [=Triton oregonensis O27, Argobuccinum (Fusitriton) oregonense O27, Priene oregonensis C64, Tritonium oregonense C64]

*Gyrineum gyrinum (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Murex gyrinus BR17, Bursa gyrina H09, Ranella gyrina BR05]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 7 June 2021.

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