Toxicini

Toxicum punctipenne, copyright Laurence Sanders.

Belongs within: Tenebrionidae.

The Toxicini are a primarily Indo-Malayan group of darkling beetles whose larvae are found in fungal fruiting bodies and rotting wood (Matthews & Bouchard 2008).

Characters (from Matthews & Bouchard 2008): Elongate and parallel-sided to broadly ovoid, convex, smooth to strongly sculptured, glabrous or with short squamiform setae, fuscous to piceous, matt. Total length 6–18 mm. Edge of clypeus slightly arcuately produced to shallowly emarginate. Eyes strongly transverse, reniform. Labrum only a little transverse, in Toxicina (Fig. 40B) tormal arms with only posterior mesal extensions and with epitorma, with asymmetrical setal pattern, or with anterior and posterior extensions and no epitorma, setal pattern symmetrical. Basal membrane not visible. Antennae of moderate length, not or barely reaching base of prothorax, segments subequal in width except last two to four expanded into a capitate club, with simple setiform sensilla only. Corpotentorium present, moderately arched. Mandibles short, bidentate, molar surface without fine striations. Maxilla with single long lacinial uncus, palpi with ovoid or truncate apical segment, slightly expanded. Mentum trapezoidal or apically expanded and bilobed. Pronotum either subquadrate with smooth disc or more or less sculptured and very convex. Prosternum moderately long before coxae. Procoxal cavities open or barely open internally or closed. Mesocoxal cavities partly closed by mesepimeron. Metendosternite without laminae, with long stem. Elytra usually with nine striae and scutellary striole, sometimes with part of additional stria laterally, or striae not visible, epipleura complete to apex. Wings present or absent, venation unmodified, with or without medial fleck, radial cell developed, apical membrane short. Legs not fossorial, tarsomeres not lobed, plantar surfaces with long sparse setae. Abdomen without visible external membranes. Defensive gland sacs moderately long, not constricted at bases, without or with minimal common volume, with apical gland fields. Ovipositor elongate with coxite lobe 4 digitate, sometimes shortened, gonostyles apical, baculus of coxite lobe 1 transverse. Female tract with single coiled bursa-derived spermatheca, but spermatheca divided into two or more branches. Aedeagus with broad or narrow parameres subequal in length to or shorter than basal piece.

<==Toxicini
    |  i. s.: CryphaeusMB08
    |         Calymmus berardi (Montrouzier 1860) [incl. Bradymerus antennatus Kulzer 1951]MB08
    |--Toxicum Latreille 1802 [=Trestonia Rafinesque 1815; Toxicina]MB08
    |    |--*T. richesianum Latreille 1804MB08
    |    |--T. brevicorne Pascoe 1866 (see below for synonymy)MB08
    |    |--T. gracile Pascoe 1883MB08
    |    |--T. insigne Carter 1914MB08
    |    |--T. punctipenne Pascoe 1866 (see below for synonymy)MB08
    |    |--T. quinquecornutum Carter 1914MB08
    |    `--T. tuberculiceps (Carter 1914) [=Encyalesthus tuberculiceps]MB08
    `--Eudysantina [Dysantini]MB08
         |--Ilyxerus Pascoe 1866MB08
         |    `--*I. asper Pascoe 1866MB08
         |--Orcopagia Pascoe 1869MB08
         |    |--*O. monstrosa Pascoe 1869MB08
         |    `--O. regularis Carter 1914MB08
         `--Mychestes Pascoe 1870MB08
              |--*M. lignarius Pascoe 1870MB08
              |--M. congestus Pascoe 1883MB08
              |--M. laticollis Carter 1939MB08
              |--M. mastersi Macleay 1872MB08
              |--M. ordinatus Carter 1937MB08
              `--M. pascoei Macleay 1872MB08

Toxicum brevicorne Pascoe 1866 [incl. T. curvicorne Blackburn 1888, T. parvicorne Macleay 1872, T. spretum Blackburn 1888]MB08

Toxicum punctipenne Pascoe 1866 [incl. T. addendum Blackburn 1889, T. distinctum Macleay 1872, T. plateuri Pic 1913]MB08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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