Reconstruction of Renalia, copyright Falconaumanni.

Belongs within: Apo-Tracheophyta.
Contains: Pan-Monilophyta, Trimerophytina, Lignophyta, Zosterophyllaceae, Lycopodiopsida.

Tracheophyta was defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the crown-group of vascular plants, i.e. the largest crown clade including Zea mays but not Phaeoceros laevis, Marchantia polymorpha or Polytrichum commune, characterised by the walls of the water-conducting cells having a thick, lignified, decay-resistent layer. Modern tracheophytes are divided between the Lycopodiopsida (clubmosses and allies) and Euphyllophyta (ferns and seed plants). Living members of the latter clade are characterised by the presence of broad true leaves (megaphylls or euphylls). However, fossil evidence suggests that the leaves of ferns and seed plants may have evolved independently from each other (Cantino et al. 2007). The total group of the Lycopodiopsida (Pan-Lycopodiophyta) may be characterised by sporangium dehiscence by a transverse, apical split (Cantino et al. 2007).

<==Tracheophyta [Cormatae, Pteridophytina]
    |--Euphyllophyta [Euphyllophytina, Pan-Euphyllophyta]CD07
    |    |  i. s.: CyclogranisporitesSP12
    |    |           |--C. flexuosusP63
    |    |           `--C. lasiusP63
    |    |--Pan-MonilophytaCD07
    |    `--+--TrimerophytinaSP12
    |       `--LignophytaCD07
    `--Pan-Lycopodiophyta [Lycopodiobiotina]CD07
         |--‘Cooksonia’ caledonica Edwards 1970SP12
            |    |--R. grabertiiEE86
            |    |--R. hueberiEE86
            |    `--R. majorEE86
Tracheophyta incertae sedis:
    |--X. dolabriformisPA-W02
    `--X. xylocarpaRH91
    |--Rinconadia archangelskyiVA01
    |--Jejenia alataVA01
    |--Austrocalyx Vega & Archangelsky 1996VA01
    |    `--A. jejenensisVA01
    `--Polycalyx Vega & Archangelsky 2001VA01
         |--*P. laterale Vega & Archangelsky 2001VA01
         `--P. tetramera Vega & Archangelsky 2001VA01
    |--D. holdeniiVA01
    `--D. teilianumVA01
  Pullaritheca longii [=Hydrasperma longii]VA01
  Yunia dichotoma Hao & Beck 1991G97
    |--C. annulatusVB02
    |--C. augustusVB02
    |--C. australiensis (Cookson) Potonié 1956I02
    |--C. hughesiiVB02
    |--C. ludbrookiaeVB02
    |--C. orbiculatus Singh 1964I02
    |--C. purbeckensisVB02
    `--C. recticicatricosus Döring 1965I02
    |--D. hallii Miner 1935I02
    |--D. mesozoicusDV06
    `--D. psilostoma Rouse 1959YB02
  Matonisporites cooksoniaeI02, VB02
  Cibotiumspora jurienensis (Balme) Filatoff 1975I02
    |--C. australis Couper 1953YB02
    `--C. minor Couper 1953YB02
    |--T. major Couper 1958YB02
    `--T. minor Couper 1958YB02
  Trilobosporites laevigatus El Beialy 1994I02
    |--A. austrina Etheridge 1888F71
    `--A. ovata [incl. Rhacopteris inaequilatera]F71
  Apocynocarpum sulcatum Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |--A. gregoi Ettingshausen 1886F71
    `--A. stuarti Ettingshausen 1883F71
  Bairera multifidaF71
  Bambusites arthrostylinus Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Blechnoxylon talbragarense Etheridge 1899F71
  Walkomiella australis [=Brachyphyllum australe Feistmantel 1878-1879]F71
    |--C. hackii Ettingshausen 1886F71
    `--C. obliquum Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |--C. australisF71
    |--C. royleiF71
    |    |--C. r. var. royleiF71
    |    `--C. r. var. murtoni Dun 1909F71
    `--C. strictaK-CB01
  Cupanites selwyni Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Dalbergiophyllum affine Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Diemenia perseaefolia Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Dolichites coriaceus Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Ficonium solandri Ettingshausen 1883F71
    |--G. angustifoliaS89
    `--G. walkomii Rigby 1967F71
  Ginkgocladus australiensis Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Heterocladiscos thujoides Ettingshausen 1883F71
  Salisburia palmata [=Jeanpaulia palmata Ratte 1886]F71
    |--M. lataS89
    `--M. wianamattae Feistmantel 1878-1879F71
  Molongia brownii Ettingshausen 1883F71
  Maitaia podocarpoidesF71
  Malpighiastrum babbagei Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Microphyllopteris pectinataF71
    |--M. lanceolatum Ettingshausen 1886F71
    `--M. obtusifolium Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Oleandridium lenticuliforme Etheridge 1894F71
    |--O. alataF71
    `--O. oxydata [=Sphenopteris oxydata]G31
  Palaeocladus cuneiformis Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Pitys sussmilchiF71
  Pseudopinus wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Rhopala sapindifolia Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Stenopteris rigida Dun 1909F71
    |--T. feistmanteliF71
    |--T. incisaG31
    |--T. lancifoliaF71
    `--T. narrabeenensis Dun in Walkom 1925F71
  Trachyphyllum myosotinum Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Annularia Sternb. 1825 non Schumacher 1817 (ICZN)KC01
    |--A. australis Feistmantel 1878-1879F71
    |--A. inaequifoliaG31
    |--A. ivini Walkom 1941F71
    |--A. latifoliaA38
    |--A. longifoliaG31
    |--A. maximaG31
    |--A. mucronataG31
    |--A. papilioidesG31
    |--A. sphenophylloidesA38
    `--A. stellataA38
  Austroclepsis australisC02
    |--J. bidensR87
    `--J. munsterianaR87

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C02] Clifford, H. T. 2002. A new Devonian fern, Fanningopteris wyattii, from Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48: 71–77.

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[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G97] Gerrienne, P. 1997. The fossil plants from the Lower Devonian of Marchin (northern margin of Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium): V. Psilophyton genseliae sp. nov., with hypotheses on the origin of Trimerophytina. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 98: 303–324.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian–Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K-CB01] Konijnenburg-van Cittert, H. van, & K. Bandel. 2001. Jurassic plants from Djebel Tih, Sinai. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 85: 47–64.

[PA-W02] Pang, K.-L., M. A. Abdel-Wahab, S. Sivichai, H. M. El-Sharouney & E. B. G. Jones. 2002. Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of lignicolous freshwater ascomycetes. Mycological Research 106 (9): 1031–1042.

[P63] Playford, G. 1963. Lower Carboniferous microfloras of Spitsbergen. Part two. Palaeontology 5 (4): 619–678.

[RH91] Ramani, N., & M. A. Haq. 1991. Potential of Meristacarus degradatus and Xylobates rhomboides (Acari: Oribatei) in the degradation of higher plant materials. In Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 411–415. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R87] Ratte, F. 1887. Notes on Australian fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1065–1084, pls 15–17.

[SC02] Shute, C. H., & C. J. Cleal. 2002. Ecology and growth habit of Laveineopteris: a gymnosperm from the Late Carboniferous tropical rain forests. Palaeontology 45 (5): 943–972.

[SP12] Steemans, P., E. Petus, P. Breuer, P. Mauller-Mendlowicz & P. Gerrienne. 2012. Palaeozoic innovations in the micro- and megafossil plant record: from the earliest plant spores to the earliest seeds. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 437–477. Springer.

[S89] Stephens, W. J. 1889. An attempt to synchronise the Australian, South African, and Indian coal measures. Part I.—The Australasian and New Zealand formations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 331–356.

[VA01] Vega, J. C., & S. Archangelsky. 2001. Austrocalyxaceae, a new pteridosperm family from Gondwana. Palaeontographica Abt. B 257: 1–16.

[VB02] Vijaya & T. K. Bhattacharji. 2002. An Early Cretaceous age for the Rajmahal traps, Panagarh area, West Bengal: Palynological evidence. Cretaceous Research 23: 789–805.

[YB02] Yi, S., & D. J. Batten. 2002. Palynology of Upper Cretaceous (uppermost Campanian-Maastrichtian) deposits in the South Yellow Sea Basin, offshore Korea. Cretaceous Research 23: 687–706.

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