Trachymedusae

Halicreas minimum, from NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.

The Trachymedusae are a group of hydrozoans lacking a polyp stage to the life cycle. Medusae develop directly from an actinula (Petersen 1979).

<==TrachymedusaeDB07
| i. s.: Carmaris glitschiH04
| Carmarina hastataH04
| Dipetasus digonimusM06
|--PetasidaeDB07
| |--CubaiaM06
| |--OlindoidesM06
| |--LimnocodiumM06
| `--Craspedacusta Lankester 1880G88, P79
| `--C. sowerbyiG88
|--Ptychogastriidae [Pectyllidae]BP00
| |--Crossota Vanhöffen 1902M06
| | |--C. brunneaM06
| | `--C. norvegica Vanhöffen 1902M06
| `--Ptychogastria Allman 1878 [incl. Pectyllis Haeckel 1879]M06
| |--P. antarctica [=Pectis antarctica]M06
| |--P. asteroides (Haeckel 1879)BP00 [=Pectanthis asteroidesM06]
| `--P. polaris Allman 1878 [incl. Pectyllis arctica Haeckel 1879]M06
|--RhopalonematidaeDB07
| |--Persa incolorata McCrady 1859BP00
| |--RhopalonemaB26
| | |--R. coeruleumM06
| | |--R. funerariumB26
| | `--R. velatumB26
| `--HomoeonemaBP00
| |--H. album [=Haliscera alba]M06
| |--H. platygonon Browne 1903BP00 [=Homoionema platygononM06]
| `--H. racovitzaeM06
|--HalicreatidaeDB07
| |--VaritentaculataDB07
| |--HalisceraM06
| | |--H. bigelowi Kramp 1947BP00
| | |--H. conicaM06
| | `--H. racovitzae (Maas 1906)BP00
| `--HalicreasCH97
| |--H. glabrumM06
| |--H. minimumCH97
| |--H. papillosumB26
| `--H. rotundatumM06
|--AglauridaeM06
| |--StauraglauraM06
| |--AglauraM06
| | |--A. hemistomaB26
| | `--A. prismaticaM06
| |--AgliscraM06
| | |--A. elataM06
| | `--A. igneaM06
| `--AglanthaM06
| |--A. conicaM06
| |--A. digitalis (Müller 1766) (see below for synonymy)M06
| `--A. rosea [=Circe rosea]M06
|--GeryoniidaeDB07
| |--Geryones elephasH04
| |--OrithyaG20
| | |--O. minimaG20
| | `--O. tetrachiraR26
| |--GeryoniaM06
| | |--G. hastataM06
| | |--G. hexaphylla [=Orythia (Geryonia) hexaphylla]G20
| | `--G. proboscidalisR26
| `--LiriopeDB07
| |--L. appendiculata [incl. L. cerasiformis]M06
| |--L. catharinensisM06
| |--L. scutigeraB26
| `--L. tetraphyllaB26
`--TrachynematidaeM06
|--Trachynema ciliataA64
|--Beltanella Sprigg 1947NS93, G79
| `--B. gilesi Sprigg 1947NS93
|--ColobonemaM06
| |--C. sericeumPO99
| `--C. typicumM06
|--Pantachogon Maas 1893M06
| |--P. haeckeli (Maas 1893)M06
| `--P. rubrumM06
|--AmphogonaM06
| |--A. apicataPO99
| `--A. apsteini [=Pantachogon apsteini]M06
`--‘Isonema’ Maas 1906 non Meek & Worthen 1866M06
|--I. amplum [=Homoeonema amplum]M06
`--I. macrogaster [=Homoeonema macrogaster]M06

Aglantha digitalis (Müller 1766) [=Medusa digitale, Dianaca digitale, Eirene digitale, Melicerta digitale, Trachynema digitale, Turris digitalis; incl. Tu. borealis Lesson 1843, Circe camtschatica Brandt 1838, Aglantha digitalis var. camtschatica, A. digitalis var. occidentalis Maas 1893]M06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A64] Allman, G. J. 1864. Report on the present state of our knowledge of the reproductive system in the Hydroida. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 351–426.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BP00] Bouillon, J., F. Pagès, J.-M. Gili, A. Palanques, P. Puig & S. Heussner. 2000. Deep-water hydromedusae from the Lacaze-Duthiers submarine canyon (Banyuls, northwestern Mediterranean) and description of two new genera, Guillea and Parateclaia. Scientia Marina 64 (Suppl. 1): 87–95.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[M06] Maas, O. 1906. Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen). In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 479–526. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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