Trebouxia cells, copyright Miguel Varona.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.
Contains: Chlorella, Chlorosarcinaceae.

The Trebouxiophyceae are a group of unicellular green algae, some of which are found in lichen-forming symbioses with fungi.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Swimming cells with one or two pairs of cilia, without mastigonemes; basal bodies with four microtubular rootlets in cruciate arrangement, including a multi-layered structure, and a smaller root, alternating between two or more microtubules; basal bodies with prominent rhizoplast, cruciate, displaced counter-clockwise and counter-clockwise basal body orientation; closed mitosis with metacentric spindle, semi-closed mitosis; cytokinesis with phycoplast; asexual reproduction by autospores or zoospores; sexual reproduction reported but not observed; lichenose and free-living forms; osmotrophy and autotrophy.

<==Trebouxiophyceae [Microthamniales, Pleurastrophyceae]AS12
    |  i. s.: KoliellaL-BC03
    |         Botryococcus Kutzing 1849AS12, M70
    |           `--B. braunii Kutzing 1849M70
    |         ChoricystisAS12
    |         NannochlorisAS12
    |         PabiaAS12
    |--Coccomyxa [Coccomyxaceae]AS12
    |    |--C. astericolaBK77
    |    |--C. ophiuraeBK77
    |    `--C. subellipsoideaC-S18
    |    |--ChlorellaTB03
    |    `--Caryosphaeroides Schopf 1968KS92
    |         `--*C. pristina Schopf 1968KS92
    |--Prasiolaceae [Schizogoniales]S57
    |    |--Rosenvingiella constricta (Setchell & Gardner) Silva 1957 [=Gayella constricta]S57
    |    |--Schizogonium muraleS57
    |    |    |--S. m. f. muraleS57
    |    |    `--S. m. f. uniseriatum Jao 1937S57
    |    `--Prasiola Menegh. 1838AS12, KC01
    |         |--P. calophylla (Carmichael) Meneghini 1838S57 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--P. crispaWP99
    |         |--P. linearis Jao 1937S57
    |         `--P. meridionalis Setchell & Gardner 1920S57
    |    |--PseudochlorellaA90
    |    |--DactylococcusA90
    |    |--MuriellaA90
    |    |--PlanktosphaerellaA90
    |    |--PseudochlorococcumA90
    |    |--ScotiellaA90
    |    `--Oocystis Nageli in Braun 1855AS12, M70
    |         |--O. ellipticaSG05
    |         |--O. lacustris Chodat 1897M70
    |         |--O. marsonii Lemmermann 1898GPN97
    |         |--O. nagelii Braun 1885M70
    |         `--O. parva West & West 1898M70
    `--Chaetophoraceae [Chaetophorales, Chaetophoreae]A90
         |  i. s.:  DraparnaldiaG64
         |           |--D. acutaVP72
         |           |--D. glomerataSG05
         |           |--D. plumosaVP72
         |           `--D. repetitaG64
         |         StigeocloniumSG05
         |           |--‘Draparnaldia’ condensataG64
         |           |--‘Draparnaldia’ elongataG64
         |           |--‘Draparnaldia’ nanaG64
         |           |--‘Draparnaldia’ protensaG64
         |           |--S. subsecundumSG05
         |           `--‘Draparnaldia’ tenuisG64
         |         Desmococcus vulgarisA90, NB-P09
         |         LeptosiraA90
         |         PseudopleurococcusA90
         |         Uronema Lagerheim 1887HL09
         |           |--U. acuminataSG99
         |           |--U. africanumSG05
         |           |--U. gigasSG05
         |           `--U. marinum Womersley 1984HL09
         |         ChaetophoraG64
         |           |--C. dilatataG64
         |           |--C. elegansG64
         |           |--C. endiviaefoliaG64
         |           `--C. longaevaG64
         |--Pleurastrum terrestreMS95
         `--+--+--Parietochloris pseudoalveolarisMS95
            |  `--+--‘Characium’ perforatumMS95
            |     `--Microthamnion kutzinglanumMS95
               |  `--MyrmeciaMS95
               |       |--M. biatorellaeL-BC03
               |       `--M. israeliensisL-BC03
                    |  i. s.: T. arboricolaNB-P09
                    |         T. jamesiiHP03
                    |--T. magnaL-BC03
                    `--+--T. assymetricaL-BC03
                       `--T. impressaL-BC03

Prasiola calophylla (Carmichael) Meneghini 1838S57 [=Ulva calophyllaG64; incl. Lyngbya copulataG64, Merismopoedia punctataG64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[GPN97] Gatenby, C. M., B. C. Parker & R. J. Neves. 1997. Growth and survival of juvenile rainbow mussels, Villosa iris (Lea, 1829) (Bivalvia: Unionidae), reared on algal diets and sediment. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 57–66.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181–191.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KS92] Kumar, S., & P. Srivastava. 1992. Middle to late Proterozoic microbiota from the Deoban Limestone, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Precambrian Research 56: 291–318.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[MS95] Melkonian, M., & B. Surek. 1995. Phylogeny of the Chlorophyta: congruence between ultrastructural and molecular evidence. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 120 (2): 191–208.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 63–86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SG99] Sluiman, H. J., & C. Guihal. 1999. Phylogenetic position of Chaetosphaeridium (Chlorophyta), a basal lineage in the Charophyceae inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 35: 395–402.

[TB03] Tartar, A., D. G. Boucias, J. J. Becnel & B. J. Adams. 2003. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1719–1723.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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