Trematosauria

Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.

Belongs within: Stereospondyli.
Contains: Brachyopoidea.

The Trematosauria are a clade of temnospondyls defined by Yates & Warren (2000) as including all species closer to Trematosaurus than Parotosuchus.

Synapomorphies (from Yates & Warren 2000): Interorbital space greater than 50% of skull width at mid orbital level; stapedial foramen absent; sharp rimmed depressions absent at posterior end of ventral surface of parasphenoid plate; denticle patches absent from all three coronoids; chorda tympanic foramen located on preaticular; hamate process absent.

Trematosauria [Trematosauroidei]YW00
| i. s.: Lyrocephalus euriCZ79
|--+--Sangaia lavinaPSH17
| `--BrachyopoideaYW00
`--Trematosauroidea [Trematosauridae]YW00
| i. s.: Glyptognathus fragilis Lydekker 1882M93
| Panchetosaurus panchetensis Tripathi 1969M93
| Hyperokynodon keuperinus Plieninger 1852M93
| LonchorhynchinaeW00
| |--Gonioglyptus longirostris Huxley 1865W00, M93
| |--Aphaneramma kochiW00
| `--Erythrobatrachus noonkanbahensisW00
|--+--Trematosaurus [Trematosaurinae]PSH17
| | `--T. brauniPSH17
| `--+--Trematolestes hagdorniPSH17
| `--+--Callistomordax kugleriPSH17
| `--MetoposauroideaYW00
| |--LatiscopidaeM93
| | |--Latiscopus disjunctus Wilson 1948M93
| | `--Almasaurus habbazi Dutuit 1972YW00, CZ79
| `--MetoposauridaeM93
| |--Trigonosternum latum Schmidt 1931 (n. d.)M93
| |--ApachesaurusW00
| |--DutuitisaurusW00
| |--ArganasaurusW00
| |--BuettneriaW00
| | |--B. howardensisW00
| | `--B. perfectaYW00
| `--Metoposaurus Lydekker 1890PSH17, D07
| |--M. bakeriD07
| |--M. diagnosticusYW00
| |--M. fraasiW00
| | |--M. f. fraasiW00
| | `--M. f. jonesiW00
| |--M. heimiD07
| |--M. krasiejowensisD07
| |--M. maleriensisDDL04
| |--M. ouazzouiWT04
| |--M. santaecrucisD07
| `--M. stuttgartensis Fraas 1913M93
`--+--+--LuzocephalusYW00
| `--+--Lyrocephaliscus euriPSH17
| `--ThoosuchidaeM93
| |--Thoosuchus jakovlevi (Riabinin 1926)YW00, M93
| `--Trematotegmen otschevi Getmanov 1982M93
`--RhytidosteoideaCZ79
|--IndobrachyopidaeCZ79
| |--Derwentia warreni Cosgriff 1974CZ79
| `--+--Indobrachyops panchetensis Van Huene & Sahni 1958CZ79
| `--+--Rewana quadricuneata Howie 1972CZ79
| `--MahavisaurusCZ79
| |--M. australis (Lehmann 1966) [=Lyrosaurus australis]CZ79
| `--M. dentatus Lehmann 1966CZ79
`--RhytidosteidaeYW00
| i. s.: Arcadia myriadensYW00
| TrucheosaurusYW00
| Acerastea wadeaeW00
| Boreopelta vaviloviW00
|--DeltasaurusCZ79
| |--D. kimberleyensis Cosgriff 1965CZ79
| `--D. pustulatus Cosgriff 1965CZ79
`--+--Pneumatostega Cosgriff & Zawiskie 1979CZ79
| `--*P. potamia Cosgriff & Zawiskie 1979CZ79
`--+--RhytidosteusCZ79
| |--R. capensis Owen 1884CZ79
| `--R. uralensisW00
`--PeltostegaCZ79
|--P. erici Wiman 1916CZ79
`--P. wimani Nilsson 1946CZ79

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CZ79] Cosgriff, J. W., & J. M. Zawiskie. 1979. A new species of the Rhytidosteidae from the Lystrosaurus Zone and a review of the Rhytidosteoidea. Palaeontologia Africana 22: 1–27.

[DDL04] Datta, P. M., D. P. Das & Z.-X. Luo. 2004. A Late Triassic dromatheriid (Synapsida: Cynodontia) from India. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 12–24.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W00] Warren, A. 2000. Secondarily aquatic temnospondyls of the Upper Permian and Mesozoic. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1121–1149. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[WT04] Warren, A., & S. Turner. 2004. The first stem tetrapod from the Lower Carboniferous of Gondwana. Palaeontology 47: 151–184.

[YW00] Yates, A. M., & A. A. Warren. 2000. The phylogeny of the ‘higher’ temnospondyls (Vertebrata: Choanata) and its implications for the monophyly and origins of the Stereospondyli. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 77–121.

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