Trichoptera

Stenopsychodes sp., from here.
Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Rhyacophiloidea, Integripalpia, Psychomyioidea, Hydropsychidae.

The Trichoptera, caddisflies, are a group of moth-like insects with aquatic larvae that feed on algae or organic detritus. Adults have reduced mouthparts and do not feed except for occasionally taking water or nectar.

Characters (from Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002): General appearance of adult similar to moths. Body size small to moderately large. Head hypognathous. with eye large, antenna thread-like, mandible weak or lost, maxilla and labium lacking inner lobes, hypopharynx well developed, used in licking liquids. Pronotum short: meso- and metathoraces subequal in length and structure. Legs cursorial, tibiae basically with apical and pracapical spurs, tarsi five-segmented. Wings almost always well developed, covered with setae and numerous short chaetoids among them, rarely with patches of scales. SC sometimes with additional branches. R with apical fork. In most cases RS and M with two apical forks (dichotomously four-branched). CuA with one apical fork. Fore wing with anal veins looped. Cross-veins present. Pterostigma sometimes present. Hind wing often with venation somewhat simplified, sometimes with anal region enlarged, often pleating in folded wings. Male with segment 9 forming entire ring, genitalia generally include aedeagus, gonopods, and modified segment 10. Female primary ovipositor lost; sometimes abdominal segments 8 and 9 elongate to form secondary, often retractable, ovipositor. Immatures aquatic or semiaquatic, without spiracles, using gill or skin breathing. Larva campodeiform, legs well developed, abdominal appendages absent except claw-bearing anal prolegs attached to segment 9. Mouthparts form maxillolabium with well developed silk-weaving spinneret. Larval leg six-segmented (seemingly seven-segmented in most groups due to two-segmented trochanter) with claw-like pretarsus provided with large trichoid sensilla. Pupa with powerful mandibles, leaving retreat to swim actively toward water surface for eclosion.

<==Trichoptera [Phryganaeida, Phryganeida]
|–Spicipalpia BZ-M04
|    |–Rhyacophiloidea BZ-M04
|    `–Integripalpia BZ-M04
`–Annulipalpia [Hydropsychina, Hydropsychoidea, Philopotamoidea] BZ-M04
|–+–Psychomyioidea GE05
|  `–Hydropsychidae GE05
`–+–Stenopsychidae GE05
|    |–Stenopsyche imitata RJ93
|    `–Stenopsychodes Ulmer 1916 N83 [Stenopsychidae GE05]
|         |–*S. mjoebergi Ulmer 1916 N83
|         |–S. aureonigra Schmid 1969 N83
|         |–S. hiemalis Tillyard 1922 N83
|         |–S. lineata Neboiss 1977 N83
|         |–S. melanochrysa Tillyard 1922 N83
|         |–S. montana Tillyard 1922 [incl. S. venusta Kimmins 1953] N83
|         |–S. opsia Neboiss 1974 N83
|         |–S. syrdena Neboiss 1974 N83
|         `–S. tillyardi Banks 1939 N83
`–Philopotamidae GE05
|  i. s.: Dolophilus McLachlan 1868 N83
|           `–D. strotus Ross 1938 R38
|         Hydrobiosella Tillyard 1924 n83
|           |–*H. stenocerca Tillyard 1924 N83
|           |–H. amblyopia Neboiss 1982 N83
|           |–H. anasina Neboiss 1977 N83
|           |–H. arcuata Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) arcuata] N83
|           |–H. armata Jacquemart 1965 N83
|           |–H. bispina Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) bispina] N83
|           |–H. cerula Neboiss 1977 N83
|           |–H. cognata Kimmins 1953 (see below for synonymy) N83
|           |–H. corinna Neboiss 1977 N83
|           |–H. letti Korboot 1964 N83
|           |–H. michaelseni (Ulmer 1908) (see below for synonymy) N83
|           |–H. orba Neboiss 1977 N83
|           |–H. sagitta Neboiss 1977 N83
|           |–H. tasmanica Mosely 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) tasmanica] N83
|           `–H. waddama Mosely 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) waddama] N83
|–Chimarra Stephens 1829 [Chimarrinae] BZ-M04
|    |–*C. marginata (Linnaeus 1767) [=Phryganea marginata] N83
|    |–C. australica (Ulmer 1916) [=Chimarrha australica] N83
|    |–C. australis (Navás 1923) [=Chimarrha australis] N83
|    |–C. monticola Kimmins 1953 N83
|    `–C. uranka Mosely 1953 N83
`–Philopotaminae BZ-M04
|–Philopotamus Stephens 1829 BZ-M04
|    |–P. distinctus RD77
|    |–P. montanus (Donovan 1813) BZ-M04
|    `–P. variegatus (Scopoli 1763) BZ-M04
`–Wormaldia McLachlan 1865 BZ-M04
|–W. moesta WRM02
|–W. occipitalis B86
|–W. saldetica Botosaneanu & González 1984 BZ-M04
|–W. subterranea Radovanovic 1932 B86
`–W. triangulifera McLachlan 1878 BZ-M04

Trichoptera incertae sedis:
Liadotaulius major (Handlirsch 1906) IS02
Prorhyacophila [Prorhyacophilidae] IS02
|–P. furcata IS02
`–P. iani [=Eocorona iani] KIR02
Phenacopsyche larvalis S02
Neurochorema forsteri PSV00
Rhynchopsyche [Rhynchopsychidae] C79
Anabolia nervosa D56
Platychorista [Platychoristidae] R70
`–P. venosa R70
Parapsyche R38
|–P. almota Ross 1938 R38
|–P. apicalis R38
|–P. cardis Ross 1938 R38
`–P. elsis R38
Atopsychidae RJ93
Electralberta [Electralbertidae] RJ93
`–E. cretacica RJ93
Taymyrelectron [Taymyrelectronidae] RJ93
`–T. sukatshevae RJ93
Allomyia Banks 1916 Z12

Hydrobiosella cognata Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) cognata; incl. H. spinosa Jacquemart 1965] N83

Hydrobiosella michaelseni (Ulmer 1908) [=Dolophilus michaelseni, Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) michaelseni] N83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[B86] Botosaneanu, L. 1986. Insecta: Plecoptera, Trichoptera. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) p. 619. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[C79] Craw, R. C. 1979. Generalized tracks and dispersal in biogeography: a response to R. M. McDowall. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 99–107.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 199–220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[KIR02] Kozlov, M. V., V. D. Ivanov & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. The butterflies and moths (=Papilionida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 220–227. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[PSV00] Patrick, B. H., P. Sirvid & C. Vink. 2000. Obituary: Raymond Robert Forster D.Sc., F.E.S.N.Z., Q.S.O. 19 June 1922 – 1 July 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 23: 95–99.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R38] Ross, H. H. 1938. Descriptions of new North American Trichoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 117–124.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

[Z12] Zhang, J. 2012. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China. ZooKeys 238: 57–76.

Last updated: 16 July 2020.

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