Koch’s sandgroper Cylindraustralia kochii, photographed by Terry Houston.

Belongs within: Caelifera.

The Tridactyloidea are a group of burrowing, cricket-like orthopterans characterised by tarsi with two segments in the fore and mid legs, and only a single segment (if tarsi are present at all) in the hind legs. The pygmy mole crickets of the Tridactylidae retain hind legs suited for jumping but the sandgropers of the Cylindrachetidae have lost jumping abilities (Rentz 1996).

    |--RhipipteryxR18 [RhipipterygidaeGE05]
    |    `--R. circumcincta Saussure 1874R18
    |--Cylindrachetidae [Oryttica]GE05
    |    |--Cylindroryctes spegazziniiR96
    |    |--CylindrachetaR96
    |    |    |--C. campbelliR96
    |    |    |--C. kochiiR96
    |    |    `--C. psammophilaR91
    |    `--CylindraustraliaR96
    |         |--C. acutaR96
    |         |--C. arenivagaR96
    |         |--C. cookensisR96
    |         |--C. divisaR96
    |         |--C. granulataR96
    |         |--C. karumbensisR96
    |         |--C. kochiiR96
    |         |--C. parakochiaR96
    |         |--C. parvitarsataR96
    |         |--C. setosaR96
    |         |--C. tindaleiR96
    |         `--C. ustulataR96
         |  i. s.: Monodactylus dolichopterusGR02
         |         Mongoloxya ponomarenkoiGR02
         |         EllipesTW05
         |           |--E. gurneyiK02
         |           `--E. minutusTW05
         |         Cratodactylus ferreirai Martins-Neto 1990RJ93
         |--Dentridactylus [Dentridactylinae]R96
         |    |--D. albosignatusR96
         |    `--D. keyiR96
              |    |--T. australicusR96
              |    |--T. mutusR96
              |    `--T. paradoxusL02
                   |--X. mutaR96
                   |--X. nautarraeR96
                   |--X. nitobaeR96
                   |--X. pseudomutaR96
                   |--X. smithersiR96
                   `--X. unicolorR96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K02] Katovich, K. 2002. Heteroceridae MacLeay 1825. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 127–132. CRC Press.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

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