Trigona

Trigona carbonaria, copyright David C. Simon.

Belongs within: Meliponini.

Trigona is a widespread genus of small, dark, stingless bees living in large colonies (Michener 1965).

<==Trigona Jurine 1807E01
    |--*T. (Trigona) amalthea (Olivier 1789) [=Apis amalthea]M65
    |    |--T. a. amaltheaB04
    |    `--T. a. silvestrianaB04
    |--T. (Plebeia Schwarz 1938) (see below for synonymy)M65
    |    |--T. (*P.) mosquito Smith 1863M65
    |    |--T. (P.) australis Friese 1898M65
    |    |--T. (P.) caerulea Friese 1900 [=Melipona caerulea, *Mourella caerulea]M65
    |    |--T. (P.) cassiae Cockerell 1910 [=*Austroplebeia cassiae]M65
    |    |--T. (P.) cincta Mocsáry in Friese 1898M65
    |    |--T. (P.) cockerelli Rayment 1930M65
    |    |--T. (P.) essingtoni Cockerell 1905M65
    |    |--T. (P.) lendliana Friese 1900 [=*Plebeiella lendliana]M65
    |    |--T. (P.) ornata Rayment 1932M65 [=T. cockerelli ornataR35]
    |    |--T. (P.) percincta Cockerell 1929M65 [=T. cincta percinctaR35]
    |    |--T. (P.) quadripunctata Lepeletier 1836 [=Melipona quadripunctata, *Schwarziana quadripunctata]M65
    |    |--T. (P.) schrottkyi Friese 1910 [=*Friesella schrottkyi]M65
    |    |--T. (P.) symei Rayment 1932M65
    |    `--T. (P.) websteri Cockerell 1932M65
    `--T. (Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville 1828) (see below for synonymy)M65
         |--T. (T.) clavipes (Fabricius 1804) (see below for synonymy)M65
         |--T. (T.) angophorae Cockerell 1912M65 [=T. carbonaria angophoraeR35]
         |--T. (T.) apicalis Smith 1857 [=*Tetrigona apicalis]M65
         |--T. (T.) atrata (Fabricius 1798) [=Apis atrata]M65
         |--T. (T.) atricornis Smith 1864M65
         |--T. (T.) atripes Smith 1857 [=*Tetragonilla atripes]M65
         |--T. (T.) biroi Friese 1898M65
         |--T. (T.) canifrons Smith 1857 [=*Lophotrigona canifrons]M65
         |--T. (T.) carbonaria Smith 1854M65
         |--T. (T.) clypearis Friese 1908M65
         |--T. (T.) fimbriata Smith 1857 [=*Homotrigona fimbriata]M65
         |--T. (T.) flaviventris Friese 1908M65
         |--T. (T.) genalis Friese 1908M65
         |--T. (T.) haematoptera Cockerell 1919 [=*Odontotrigona haematoptera]M65
         |--T. (T.) heideri Friese 1900 [=*Ptilotrigona heideri]M65
         |--T. (T.) hockingsi Cockerell 1929M65
         |--T. (T.) huberi Friese 1900 [=*Duckeola huberi]M65
         |--T. (T.) itama Cockerell 1918 [=*Heterotrigona itama]M65
         |--T. (T.) keyensis Friese 1901 [incl. T. latigena Friese 1901]M65
         |--T. (T.) laeviceps Smith 1857M65
         |--T. (T.) lamingtonia Cockerell 1929M65
         |--T. (T.) mellipes Friese 1898M65
         |--T. (T.) mombuca Smith 1863 [=*Geotrigona mombuca]M65
         |--T. (T.) planifrons Smith 1864 [=*Platytrigona planifrons]M65
         |--T. (T.) sapiens Cockerell 1911M65
         |--T. (T.) silvestrii Friese 1912 [=*Frieseomelitta silvestrii]M65
         |--T. (T.) thoracica Smith 1857 [=*Geniotrigona thoracica]M65
         `--T. (T.) wybenica Cockerell 1929M65
Trigona incertae sedis:
  T. braunsiR35
  T. butteliP92
  T. capitataR35
  T. fulviventrisTM03
  T. fuscipennis Friese 1900CSD10
  T. hyalinataB04
    |--T. h. hyalinataB04
    `--T. h. amazonensisB04
  T. luridaE01
  T. luteaRD77
  T. mirandulaP92
  T. nebulataR35
  T. zebraeR35

Trigona (Plebeia Schwarz 1938) [incl. Austroplebeia Moure 1961, Friesella Moure 1946, Mourella Schwarz in Moure 1946, Plebeiella Moure 1961, Schwarziana Moure 1943]M65

Trigona (Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville 1828) [incl. Duckeola Moure 1944, Frieseomelitta Ihering 1912, Geniotrigona Moure 1961, Geotrigona Moure 1943, Heterotrigona Schwarz 1939, Homotrigona Moure 1961, Lophotrigona Moure 1961, Odontotrigona Moure 1961, Platytrigona Moure 1961, Ptilotrigona Moure 1951, Tetragonilla Moure 1961, Tetrigona Moure 1961]M65

Trigona (Tetragona) clavipes (Fabricius 1804) [=Centris clavipes; incl. T. elongata Lepeletier & Serville 1828, *Tetragona elongata]M65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TM03] Teixeira, A. C. P., M. M. Marini, J. R. Nicoli, Y. Antonini, R. P. Martins, M.-A. Lachance & C. A. Rosa. 2003. Starmerella meliponinorum sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species associated with stingless bees. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 339–343.

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