Trigonocarpales

Frond of Neuropteris, copyright Gunnar Ries.

Belongs within: Apo-Spermatophyta.

The Medullosales are a group of seed ferns known from the late Early Carboniferous to the Permian, generally reconstructed with an unbranching trunk crowned by fronds. At least some genera demonstrate dimorphism in leaf structure, with orbicular ‘Cyclopteris‘ leaves borne on basal parts of the trunk giving way to the pinnate fronds at the crown (Shute & Cleal 2002).

Trigonocarpales [Medullosales]
|--PotonieaceaeC93
| |--Sutcliffia Scott 1906C93
| |--Hexagonocarpus Renault 1896C93
| | `--H. modestae (Bertrand) Seward 1917C93
| |--Potoniea Zeiller 1899C93
| | `--P. adiantiformis Zeiller 1899C93
| |--Linopteris Presl 1838C93
| | `--L. gangamopteroides (de Stefani) Wagner 1958 [incl. L. brongniartii Zeiller 1888 non Gutbier 1835]C93
| |--Paripteris Gothan 1941C93
| | |--P. gigantea (Sternberg) Gothan 1941C93
| | `--P. pseudogiganteaSC02
| `--Hexapterospermum Brongniart 1874C93
| |--H. pachypterum Brongniart 1881C93
| `--H. stenopterum Brongniart 1881C93
`--Trigonocarpaceae [Medullosaceae]C93
|--Holcospermum ellipsoideum (Göppert) Walton 1931C93
|--Rhynchosperma quinnii Taylor & Eggert 1967C93
|--Quaestoria amplecta Mapes & Rothwell 1980C93
|--Myeloxylon elegans (Cotta) Brongniart 1849C93
|--Neurocallipteris planchardii (Zeiller) Cleal et al. 1990C93
|--Trigonocarpus Brongniart 1828Z02
| `--T. noeggerathiG31
|--Odontopteris Brongniart 1828C93, SC02
| |--O. microphyllaS89
| |--O. reicheanaG31
| `--O. subcrenulata (Rost) Zeiller 1888C93
|--MedullosaC93
| |--M. leuckartii Göppert & Sterzel 1881C93
| |--M. porosa Cotta 1832C93
| |--M. solmsii Schenk 1889C93
| `--M. stellata Cotta 1832C93
|--AlethopterisC93
| |--A. australis [=Pecopteris australis]S89
| |--A. curraniS89
| |--A. decurrensSC02
| |--A. grandiniG31
| |--A. lonchiticaA38
| |--A. schneideri Sterzel 1981C93
| `--A. serrataP92
`--Neuropteris Brongniart 1828C93, SC02
|--N. antecedens Stur 1875C93
|--N. erianaA38
|--N. flexuosaR79
|--N. giganteaZP86
|--N. heterophylla (Brongniart) Sternberg 1825SC02
|--N. obliquaSC02
|--N. ovataSC02
|--N. praedentataH75
|--N. rarinervisR79
|--N. scheuchzeriG31
|--N. selwyni [incl. N. schlehani]A38
|--N. shaoguangensisZP86
`--N. tenuifoliaR79

Trigonocarpales incertae sedis:
Cyclopteris Brongniart 1828SC02
`--C. cuneataS89
Reticulopteris muensteriSC02
Lescuropteris Schimper 1869SC02, C93
`--L. genuinaSC02
Blanzyopteris praedentataSC02
QuaestoraFC07
MacroneuropterisSC02
|--M. macrophyllaSC02
`--M. scheuchzeriSC02
Laveineopteris Cleal et al. 1990SC02
|--L. loshiiSC02
|--‘Cyclopteris’ orbicularis Brongniart 1831SC02
|--L. piesbergensisSC02
|--L. rarinervisSC02
`--L. tenuifoliaSC02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1–65.

[C93] Cleal, C. J. 1993. Gymnospermophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 795–808. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549–552.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R79] Ross, C. A. 1979. Carboniferous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A254–A290. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SC02] Shute, C. H., & C. J. Cleal. 2002. Ecology and growth habit of Laveineopteris: a gymnosperm from the Late Carboniferous tropical rain forests. Palaeontology 45 (5): 943–972.

[S89] Stephens, W. J. 1889. An attempt to synchronise the Australian, South African, and Indian coal measures. Part I.—The Australasian and New Zealand formations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 331–356.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 303–324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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