Trivia europaea, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Cypraeoidea.

The Triviidae are a group of small marine gastropods with globular shells similar to those of cowries, but with the apertural teeth continued over the sides and top (Wilson & Gillett 1971). As in cowries, the shell is covered in life by flaps of the mantle, leaving the shell with a glossy appearance. At least some species are known to live in association with tunicates on which they feed.

<==Triviidae [Triviacea, Triviinae]
    |--Circumscapula iota Cate 1979BC01
    |--Triviella Jousseaume 1884 [Triviellini]BR05
    |    |--T. porcellio Cate 1979 [=Cypraea oniscus Lamarck 1811 non Röding 1798, *T. oniscus]BR17
    |    `--T. memorata Finlay 1927F27
    |--Niveria Jousseaume 1884W93
    |    |--N. pediculus (Linné 1758)S11
    |    `--N. quadripunctata Gray 1827M03
    |--Dolichupis Iredale 1930W93
    |    |--*D. producta (Gaskoin 1836) [=Cypraea producta, Trivia (*Dolichupis) producta]W93
    |    |--D. akroterion (Cate 1979) [=Pusula (Dolichupis) akroterion]BC01
    |    `--D. zealandica (Kirk 1882) [incl. Ellatrivia flora Marwick 1928]FG12
    |--Ellatrivia Iredale 1931FG12
    |    |--*E. merces (Iredale 1924)FG12 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--E. m. mercesW93
    |    |    `--E. m. memorata (Finlay 1927) [=Trivia merces memorata]W93
    |    |--E. bipunctata (Odhner 1917)WBS-S15
    |    `--E. goudeyi Fehse & Grego 2012FG12
    |--Pusula Jousseaume 1884 [Pusulini]BR05
    |    |--*P. radians (Lamarck 1810)BR17 [=Cypraea radiansBR17, Trivia radiansO27; incl. C. costataC64]
    |    |--P. carabus Cate 1979BC01
    |    |--P. ritteri (Raymond 1903)B56, O27 [=Trivia (Pusula) ritteriB56]
    |    `--P. solandri Sowerby 1832M03
    |--Trivirostra Jousseaume 1884WG71
    |    |--*T. oryza (Lamarck 1810)W93, S11 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--T. corinneae (Shaw 1909) (see below for synonymy)W93
    |    |--T. cudarum Cate 1979W93
    |    |--T. edgari Shaw 1909M03 [=Trivia edgariW93; incl. Trivia grando Gaskoin 1849W93, Trivia oryzoides Iredale 1935W93]
    |    |--T. hordacea (Kiener 1843) [=Trivia hordacea; incl. Trivia koroensis Ladd 1934]W93
    |    |--T. obscura (Gaskoin 1849) (see below for synonymy)W93
    |    |--T. pellucidula (Reeve 1845) [=Trivia pellucidula; incl. T. pellucida Gaskoin 1846 (n. n.)]W93
    |    |--T. scabriuscula (Gray 1827) [=Trivia scabriuscula; incl. Trivia gaskoini Roberts 1869]W93
    |    `--T. thaanumi Cate 1979BC01
    |--Trivellona Iredale 1931FG12
    |    |--*T. excelsa Iredale 1931FG12
    |    |--T. avellanoides (McCoy 1861)FG12
    |    |--T. crassicostata (Schilder 1935)FG12
    |    |--T. daphnes (Schilder 1966)FG12
    |    |--T. darraghi Fehse & Grego 2007FG12
    |    |--T. felixlorenzi Fehse & Grego 2012FG12
    |    |--T. kendricki Fehse & Grego 2007FG12
    |    |--T. kiiensis (Kuroda & Cate in Cate 1979)FG08
    |    |--T. lochi Fehse & Grego 2007FG12
    |    |--T. opalina (Kuroda & Cate in Cate 1979)FG08
    |    |--T. subtilis (Schilder 1935)FG12
    |    |--T. tatei (Schilder 1935)FG12
    |    `--T. transiens (Schilder 1935)FG12
    |--Proterato Schilder 1927BC01, W93 [incl. Lachryma Sowerby 1832W93]
    |    |--*P. (Proterato) neozelanica [=Erato neozelanica]W93
    |    |--P. (Cypraeerato Schilder 1932)W93
    |    |    |--P. (*C.) bimaculata (Tate 1878) [=Erato bimaculata]W93
    |    |    |--P. (C.) angistoma (Sowerby 1832) (see below for synonymy)W93
    |    |    |--P. (C.) gallinacea (Hinds 1844)W93
    |    |    `--P. (C.) minor (Tate 1878)W93
    |    |--P. (Eratoena Iredale 1935)W93
    |    |    |--P. (*E.) corrugata (Hinds 1844) [=Ovulum corrugata]W93
    |    |    `--P. (E.) sulcifera (Sowerby 1832) (see below for synonymy)W93
    |    `--P. (Sulcerato Finlay 1930)W93
    |         |--P. (*S.) illota [=Erato (Eratopsis) illota]W93
    |         |--P. (S.) denticulata (Pritchard & Gatliff 1901) [=P. lachryma denticulata]W93
    |         |--P. (S.) geralia Cate 1977BC01
    |         `--P. (S.) lachryma (Sowerby 1832) [=*Lachryma lachryma; incl. P. trifasciata Cotton & Godfrey 1932]W93
    `--Trivia Gray 1837 [Triviini]BR05
         |  i. s.: T. californica Gray 1828O27
         |         T. candidulaPP64
         |         T. childreniG79
         |         T. corrugataG79
         |         T. exiguaG79
         |         T. minima Tenison-Woods 1879F71
         |         T. napoliniK96
         |         T. pacificaC64
         |         T. pinguior (Marwick 1920) [=Triviella pinguior]F27
         |         T. pullaC64
         |         T. pustulataC64
         |         T. sanguinea Gray 1832O27 [incl. Cypraea rubescensC64]
         |         T. solandri (Gray 1837) [=Cypraea solandri]O27
         |         T. subrostrataC64
         |         T. sulcata (Gaskoin 1848) [=Cypraea sulcata]H09
         |         T. zelandica (Kirk 1882) [=Triviella zelandica]F27
         |--T. (Trivia)BC01
         |    |--*T. (T.) europaea (Montagu 1808) [=Cypraea europaea]BR17
         |    |--T. (T.) hispania Cate 1979BC01
         |    `--T. (T.) tortuga Cate 1979BC01
         |--T. (Cleotrivia Iredale 1930)W93
         |    |--T. (C.) globosa (Sowerby 1832)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--‘Cleotrivia’ corallina Cate 1979W93
         |    |--‘Cleotrivia’ dorsennus Cate 1979W93
         |    |--‘Cleotrivia’ meridionalis Cate 1979W93
         |    `--T. (C.) vitrea Gaskoin 1849W93 [=Cypraea vitreaH09]
         |--T. (Fossatrivia Iredale 1931)W93
         |    `--T. (*F.) caelatura Hedley 1918W93
         `--T. (Semitrivia Cossmann 1903)W93
              `--T. (*S.) erugataW93

*Ellatrivia merces (Iredale 1924)FG12 [=Trivia mercesP61, Triviella mercesFG12, Trivia australis (Lamarck 1822) (preoc.)F27; incl. Trivia merces addenda Iredale 1931W93]

Proterato (Cypraeerato) angistoma (Sowerby 1832) [incl. P. angistoma angulifera Sowerby 1859, P. bisinventa Iredale 1931, P. pellucida Reeve 1865]W93

Proterato (Eratoena) sulcifera (Sowerby 1832) [incl. P. capensis Schilder 1933, P. nana Sowerby 1859, P. schmeltziana Crosse 1867]W93

Trivia (Cleotrivia) globosa (Sowerby 1832)W93 [=Cypraea globosaH09; incl. T. acutisulcata Kenyon 1900W93, T. bathypilula Iredale 1935W93, T. brevissima Sowerby 1870W93, T. cosmoi Dautzenberg 1921W93, T. pilula euclaensis Cate 1979W93, Cy. pilula Kiener 1843W93, *Cleotrivia pilulaW93, Trivia pilulaW93, T. pisulum Schilder 1932W93, T. pisum Gaskoin 1846W93, T. sphaerula Mighels 1845W93]

Trivirostra corinneae (Shaw 1909) [=Trivia corinneae; incl. Trivia hidalgoi Vredenberg 1920, Trivia insecta Mighels 1845]W93

Trivirostra obscura (Gaskoin 1849) [=Trivia obscura; incl. Trivia bipunctata Odhner 1917, Trivia exmouthensis Cate 1979, Trivia pargrando Iredale 1935]W93

*Trivirostra oryza (Lamarck 1810)W93, S11 [=Cypraea oryzaW93, Trivia oryzaW93; incl. Trivirostra boswellae Cate 1979BC01, Trivia intermedia Kiener 1843W93, Trivia minor Schepman 1909W93, Trivia pediculus Roberts 1870W93, Trivia zzyzyxia Cate 1979W93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[FG08] Fehse, D., & J. Grego. 2008. New species of the genus Trivellona (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Miocene of Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 205–213.

[FG12] Fehse, D., & J. Grego. 2012. Contribution to the knowledge of Triviidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) XXIII. New fossil species in the genera Ellatrivia and Trivellona. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 1–6.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G79] Garrett, A. 1879. Annotated catalogue of the species of Cypraeidae collected in the S. Sea islands. Journal of Conchology 2: 105–128.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[K96] Kenyon, A. F. 1896. On the occurrence of callosities in Cypraea other than Cy. bicallosa and Cy. rhinocerus; and on the occurrence of a sulcus in Trivia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (1): 26–27.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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