Trochilinae

Tyrian metaltail Metallura tyrianthina, copyright Sergey Pisarevskiy.

Belongs within: Trochilidae.
Contains: Trochilus, Anthracothorax, Lampornis, Selasphorus, Chlorostilbon, Amazilia, Thalurania, Coeligena, Eriocnemis, Lophornis, Heliangelus.

The Trochilinae are a diverse group of straight-billed, often brightly coloured hummingbirds.

<==TrochilinaeB94
    |--+--+--Doryfera Gould 1847BKB15, B94 [incl. Hemistephania Reichenbach 1854B94; Doryferinae, Hemistephaniinae]
    |  |  |    |--D. johannaeBKB15
    |  |  |    `--D. ludovicaeBKB15
    |  |  `--+--Schistes Gould 1851BKB15, B94 [Schistinae]
    |  |     |    `--S. geoffroyiBKB15
    |  |     `--Colibri Spix 1824BKB15, B94 [incl. Petasophora Gray 1840B94; Petasophorinae]
    |  |          |--C. serrirostrisBKB15
    |  |          `--+--C. thalassinusBKB15
    |  |             `--+--C. coruscansBKB15
    |  |                `--C. delphinaeBKB15
    |  `--+--+--Androdon aequatorialisBKB15
    |     |  `--+--Heliactin bilophusBKB15
    |     |     `--+--Heliactin cornutaBKB15
    |     |        `--Heliothryx Boie 1831BKB15, B94 [=Heliotrix (l. c.)B94; Heliothrichinae, Heliotrichinae, Heliotriinae]
    |     |             |--H. auritusBKB15
    |     |             `--H. barrotiBKB15
    |     `--+--Polytmus Brisson 1760BKB15, B94 [incl. Thaumatias Bonaparte 1850B94; Polytminae, Thaumatiinae]
    |        |    |--P. guainumbiBKB15
    |        |    |--P. milleriJT12
    |        |    `--P. theresiaeBKB15
    |        `--+--Avocettula Reichenbach 1849BKB15, B94 [Avocettulinae]
    |           |    `--A. recurvirostrisBKB15
    |           `--+--AnthracothoraxBKB15
    |              `--Chrysolampis Boie 1831BKB15, B94
    |                   `--C. mosquitusBKB15
    `--+--+--+--+--Lamprolaima rhamiBKB15
       |  |  |  `--+--LampornisBKB15
       |  |  |     `--+--+--Panterpe insignisBKB15
       |  |  |        |  `--Eugenes Gould 1856BKB15, B94 [Eugeninae]
       |  |  |        |       `--E. fulgensBKB15
       |  |  |        `--Heliomaster Bonaparte 1850BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |  |             |--H. furciferBKB15
       |  |  |             |--H. longirostrisBKB15
       |  |  |             `--H. squamosusBKB15
       |  |  `--+--CalothoraxBKB15
       |  |     |    |--C. luciferJT12
       |  |     |    `--C. pulcherBKB15
       |  |     `--+--+--Archilochus Reichenbach 1854BKB15, B94 [Archilochinae]
       |  |        |  |    |--A. alexandriBKB15
       |  |        |  |    `--A. colubrisBKB15
       |  |        |  `--+--SelasphorusBKB15
       |  |        |     `--Calypte Gould 1856BKB15, B94 [incl. Zephyritis Mulsant & Verreaux 1865B94; Calyptinae, Zephyritinae]
       |  |        |          |--C. annaBKB15
       |  |        |          `--C. costaeBKB15
       |  |        `--+--‘Calliphlox’ amethystinaBKB15
       |  |           `--+--Myrtis fannyBKB15
       |  |              `--+--Rhodopis vesperBKB15
       |  |                 `--+--+--Myrmia micruraBKB15
       |  |                    |  `--Thaumastura coraBKB15
       |  |                    `--+--Calliphlox Boie 1831BKB15, B94 [Calliphloxinae]
       |  |                       |    |--C. bryantaeBKB15
       |  |                       |    |--C. evelynaeJT12
       |  |                       |    `--C. mitchelliiBKB15
       |  |                       `--+--Microstilbon burmeisteriBKB15
       |  |                          `--ChaetocercusBKB15
       |  |                               |--C. astreansJT12
       |  |                               |--C. berlepschiJT12
       |  |                               |--C. bombusBKB15
       |  |                               |--C. heliodorJT12
       |  |                               |--C. jourdaniiJT12
       |  |                               `--C. mulsantBKB15
       |  `--+--Patagona Gray 1840BKB15, B94 [incl. Hypermetra Cabanis & Heine 1860B94; Hypermetrinae, Patagoninae]
       |     |    `--P. gigasBKB15
       |     |         |--P. g. gigasRN72
       |     |         `--P. g. peruvianaRN72
       |     `--+--+--+--‘Chlorostilbon’ maugaeusBKB15
       |        |  |  `--Cyanophaia Reichenbach 1854BKB15, B94 [incl. Ornismya Lesson 1828B94; Ornysmyinae]
       |        |  |       |--C. bicolorBKB15
       |        |  |       |--‘Ornismya’ petasphoraH04
       |        |  |       `--‘Ornismya’ vestita [incl. Trochilus uropygialis Fraser 1840]L43
       |        |  `--+--+--‘Hylocharis’ leucotisBKB15
       |        |     |  `--‘Hylocharis’ xantusiiBKB15
       |        |     `--+--‘Cynanthus’ sordidusJT12
       |        |        `--+--ChlorostilbonBKB15
       |        |           `--Cynanthus Swainson 1827JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |        |                `--C. latirostrisJT12 (see below for synonymy)
       |        `--+--+--+--‘Campylopterus’ curvipennisBKB15
       |           |  |  `--‘Campylopterus’ rufusBKB15
       |           |  `--+--+--Klais Reichenbach 1844BKB15, B94 [Klaiinae]
       |           |     |  |    `--K. guimetiBKB15
       |           |     |  `--+--Orthorhynchus Lacépède 1799BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |           |     |     |    `--O. cristatusBKB15
       |           |     |     `--+--Anthocephala floricepsBKB15
       |           |     |        `--Stephanoxis Simon 1897BKB15, B94 [incl. Cephalolepis Loddiges 1831B94; Cephalolepinae]
       |           |     |             `--S. lalandiBKB15
       |           |     `--Campylopterus Swainson 1827BKB15, B94 [Campylopterinae]
       |           |          |  i. s.: C. duidaeJT12
       |           |          |         C. ensipennisJT12
       |           |          |         C. excellensJT12
       |           |          |         C. phainopeplusJT12
       |           |          |--C. hemileucurusBKB15
       |           |          `--+--C. largipennisBKB15
       |           |             `--+--C. hyperythrusBKB15
       |           |                `--+--C. falcatusBKB15
       |           |                   `--C. villaviscensioBKB15
       |           `--+--+--Phaeochroa Gould 1861BKB15, B94 [Phaeochroinae]
       |              |  |    `--P. cuvieriiBKB15
       |              |  `--+--AmaziliaBKB15
       |              |     `--+--LeucippusBKB15
       |              |        |    |--L. baeriBKB15
       |              |        |    |--L. chionogaster [=Trochilus chionogaster]SS66
       |              |        |    |--L. fallaxJT12
       |              |        |    `--L. taczanowskiiJT12
       |              |        `--+--Taphrospilus hypostictusBKB15
       |              |           `--+--Aphantochroa cirrochlorisBKB15
       |              |              `--Eupetomena Gould 1853BKB15, B94 [Eupetomeninae]
       |              |                   `--E. macrouraBKB15
       |              `--+--+--Eupherusa Gould 1857BKB15, B94 [Eupherusinae]
       |                 |  |    |--E. cyanophrysJT12
       |                 |  |    |--E. eximiaBKB15
       |                 |  |    |--E. nigriventrisBKB15
       |                 |  |    `--E. poliocercaJT12
       |                 |  `--+--Microchera Gould 1858BKB15, B94 [Microcherinae]
       |                 |     |    `--M. albocoronataBKB15
       |                 |     `--ElviraBKB15
       |                 |          |--E. chionuraBKB15
       |                 |          `--E. cupreicepsBKB15
       |                 `--+--Chalybura Reichenbach 1854BKB15, B94 [Chalyburinae]
       |                    |    |--C. buffoniiBKB15
       |                    |    |    |--C. b. buffoniiE52
       |                    |    |    `--C. b. micansE52
       |                    |    `--C. urochrysiaBKB15
       |                    `--ThaluraniaBKB15
       `--+--+--+--Aglaeactis Gould 1848BKB15, B94 [Aglaeactinae]
          |  |  |    |  i. s.: A. aliciaeJT12
          |  |  |    |--A. cupripennisBKB15
          |  |  |    `--+--A. castelnaudiiBKB15
          |  |  |       `--A. pamelaBKB15
          |  |  `--Lafresnaya Bonaparte 1850BKB15, B94 [incl. Euclosia Mulsant & Verreaux 1865B94; Euclosiinae, Lafresnayinae]
          |  |       `--L. lafresnayiBKB15
          |  |            |--L. l. lafresnayiPP61
          |  |            |--L. l. greenewalti Phelps & Phelps 1961PP61
          |  |            |--L. l. liriopePP61
          |  |            |--L. l. orestesPP61
          |  |            |--L. l. rectirostrisPP61
          |  |            `--L. l. saulPP61
          |  `--+--CoeligenaBKB15
          |     `--+--+--+--Pterophanes cyanopterusBKB15
          |        |  |  `--Ensifera Lesson 1843BKB15, B94 [incl. Docimastes Gould 1849B94; Docimastinae]
          |        |  |       `--E. ensiferaBKB15 [=Docimastes ensiferH04]
          |        |  `--+--EriocnemisBKB15
          |        |     `--HaplophaediaBKB15
          |        |          |--H. assimilisJT12
          |        |          |--H. aureliaeBKB15
          |        |          `--H. lugensJT12
          |        `--+--+--BoissonneauaBKB15
          |           |  |    |--B. flavescensBKB15
          |           |  |    |--B. jardiniJT12
          |           |  |    `--B. matthewsiiBKB15
          |           |  `--+--Ocreatus Gould 1846BKB15, B94 [incl. Spathura Gould 1849B94; Spathurinae]
          |           |     |    `--O. underwoodiiBKB15
          |           |     `--Urosticte Gould 1853BKB15, B94 [Urostictinae]
          |           |          |--U. benjaminiBKB15
          |           |          `--U. ruficrissaBKB15
          |           `--+--Urochroa bougueriBKB15
          |              `--Heliodoxa Gould 1853BKB15, B94 [incl. Ionolaima Reichenbach 1854B94; Heliodoxinae, Ionolaeminae]
          |                   |--+--H. xanthogonysBKB15
          |                   |  `--+--H. branickiiBKB15
          |                   |     `--H. gularisBKB15
          |                   `--+--H. schreibersiiBKB15
          |                      `--+--H. aurescensBKB15
          |                         `--+--H. rubinoidesBKB15
          |                            `--+--H. imperatrixBKB15
          |                               `--+--H. jaculaBKB15
          |                                  `--H. leadbeateriBKB15
          `--+--+--Sephanoides Gray 1840BKB15, B94 [incl. Eustephanus Reichenbach 1849B94; Eustephaninae]
             |  |    |--S. fernandensis (King 1830)HRS06 [=Eustephanus fernandensisS66; incl. E. stokesiS66]
             |  |    |    |--S. f. fernandensisHRS06
             |  |    |    `--S. f. leyboldi Gould 1870HRS06
             |  |    |--S. galeritusWM01
             |  |    `--S. sephaniodes (Lesson & Garnot 1827)HRS06
             |  `--+--LophornisBKB15
             |     `--Discosura Bonaparte 1850BKB15, B94 [incl. Platurus Swainson 1837B94; Platurinae]
             |          |  i. s.: D. letitiaeJT12
             |          |--D. longicaudusBKB15
             |          `--+--D. conversiiBKB15
             |             `--+--D. langsdorffiBKB15
             |                `--D. popelairiiBKB15
             `--+--PhlogophilusBKB15
                |    |--P. hartertiJT12
                |    `--P. hemileucurusBKB15
                `--+--HeliangelusBKB15
                   `--+--+--Adelomyia Bonaparte 1854BKB15, B94 [Adelomyiinae]
                      |  |    `--A. melanogenysBKB15
                      |  `--+--Taphrolesbia griseiventrisBKB15
                      |     `--AglaiocercusBKB15
                      |          |--A. berlepschiJT12
                      |          |--A. coelestisBKB15
                      |          |--A. emmaeRN72
                      |          `--A. kingiBKB15
                      |               |--A. k. kingiRN72
                      |               `--A. k. mocoaRN72
                      `--+--‘Oreotrochilus’ leucopleurusBKB15
                         `--+--Oreotrochilus Gould 1847BKB15, B94 [Oreotrochilinae]
                            |    |  i. s.: O. adelaJT12
                            |    |--O. estellaBKB15
                            |    `--+--O. chimborazoBKB15
                            |       `--O. melanogasterBKB15
                            `--+--+--+--Polyonymus caroliBKB15
                               |  |  `--Opisthoprora Cabanis & Heine 1860BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                               |  |       `--O. eurypteraBKB15
                               |  `--+--Sappho Reichebach 1949BKB15, B94 [Sapphinae]
                               |     |    `--S. sparganuraBKB15
                               |     `--+--RamphomicronBKB15
                               |        |    |--R. dorsaleJT12
                               |        |    `--R. microrhynchumBKB15
                               |        `--Lesbia Lesson 1833BKB15, B94 [Lesbiinae]
                               |             |--L. nunaBKB15
                               |             `--L. victoriaeBKB15
                               |                  |--L. v. victoriaeRN72
                               |                  `--L. v. eucharisRN72
                               `--+--Chalcostigma Reichenbach 1854BKB15, B94 [incl. Eupogonus Mulsant 1875B94; Eupogoninae]
                                  |    |  i. s.: C. heteropogonJT12
                                  |    |--+--C. olivaceumBKB15
                                  |    |  `--+--C. ruficepsBKB15
                                  |    |     `--Oreonympha Gould 1869BKB15, B94 [Oreonymphinae]
                                  |    |          `--O. nobilisBKB15
                                  |    `--+--C. stanleyiBKB15
                                  |       `--+--C. herraniBKB15
                                  |          `--Oxypogon Gould 1848BKB15, B94 [Oxypogoninae]
                                  |               `--O. gueriniiBKB15
                                  `--Metallura Gould 1847BKB15, B94 [Metallurinae]
                                       |  i. s.: M. iracundaJT12
                                       |--M. tyrianthinaBKB15
                                       `--+--M. phoebeBKB15
                                          `--+--M. aeneocaudaBKB15
                                             `--+--+--M. eupogonBKB15
                                                |  `--M. theresiaeBKB15
                                                `--+--M. williamiBKB15
                                                   `--+--M. baroniBKB15
                                                      `--M. odomaeBKB15
Trochilinae incertae sedis:
  Philodice Mulsant & Verreaux 1866 [incl. Amathusia Mulsant & Verreaux 1865]B94
  Doricha Reichenbach 1853 [incl. Amalusia Mulsant 1875; Amalusiinae, Dorichinae]B94
    |--D. elizaJT12
    `--D. enicuraJT12
  Acestura Gould 1861 [Acesturinae]B94
    `--A. mulsantGZ98
  Goldmania Nelson 1911 [Goldmaniinae]B94
    `--G. violicepsJT12
  Augastes Gould 1849 [Augastinae]B94
    |--A. lumachellaJT12
    `--A. scutatusJT12
  Eucephala caeruleaSS66
  Clytolaema Gould 1853 [Clytolaeminae]B94
    |--C. aurescensSS66
    `--C. rubricauda (Boddaert 1783)U93
  Mellisuga Brisson 1760 [Mellisuginae]B94
    |--M. helenaeJT12 [=Calypte helenaeRN72]
    `--M. minimaJT12
  Loddigesia Bonaparte 1850 [incl. Loddigiornis Bonaparte 1850; Loddigornithinae]B94
    `--L. mirabilisJT12
  Popelairia Reichenbach 1854 [incl. Prymnacantha Cabanis & Heine 1860; Popelairiinae, Prymnacanthinae]B94
    |--P. conversiiS18
    |    |--P. c. conversiiS18
    |    `--P. c. aequatorialisS18
    `--P. popelairiiA61
  ThaumantiasSS66
    |--T. bartletti Gould in Sclater & Salvin 1866SS66
    `--T. fluviatilisSS66
  TrochilusJT12

Cynanthus Swainson 1827JT12, B94 [incl. Amizilis Gray 1840S18, Phaeoptila Gould 1861B94; Cynanthinae, Phaeoptilinae]

Cynanthus latirostrisJT12 [=Amazilis latirostrisS18; incl. Orthorhynchus amiziliS18, *Amizilis amiziliS18]

Heliomaster Bonaparte 1850BKB15, B94 [incl. Calliperidia Reichenbach 1854B94, Floricola Elliot 1879B94; Calliperidiinae, Floricolinae, Heliomasterinae]

Opisthoprora Cabanis & Heine 1860BKB15, B94 [incl. Avocettinus Bonaparte 1850B94; Avocettininae, Opisthoprorinae]

Orthorhynchus Lacépède 1799BKB15, B94 [incl. Bellona Mulsant 1875B94; Belloninae, Orthorhynchinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[GZ98] Gerwin, J. A., & R. M. Zink. 1998. Phylogenetic patterns in the Trochilidae. Auk 115 (1): 105–118.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109–125.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L43] Loddiges, G. 1843. On some species of humming-birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 122.

[PP61] Phelps, W. H., & W. H. Phelps Jr. 1961. Notes on Venezuelan birds and description of a new subspecies of Trochilidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 3–6.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Exhibition of some specimens of Eustephanus fernandensis and E. stokesi. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 556–557.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WM01] Willson, M. F., J. L. Morrison, K. E. Sieving, T. L. de Santo, L. Santisteban & I. Díaz. 2001. Patterns of predation risk and survival of bird nests in a Chilean agricultural landscape. Conservation Biology 15 (2): 447–456.

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