Strawberry top shell Tectus conus, copyright J. C. Schou.

Belongs within: Trochidae.

The Trochinae are a group of marine gastropods with conical or turbiniform, nodose shells with a quadrangular aperture with strongly discordant lips. Their fossil record extends from the Upper Cretaceous to the present.

In the Miocene to recent genus Trochus, the shell is conical and has a more or less flattened base. The New Zealand Thoristella has a small, smooth, similarly shaped shell with a rounded-carinate periphery and smooth columella. The Indo-Pacific genus Tectus has a conical shell higher than wide that lacks an umbilicus and has a strong spiral fold on the columella. The genus Clanculus, known right back to the Upper Cretaceous, has a rather small, rounded-conical, often beaded shell with a tooth on the columella and a crenulate ridge around the umbilical pit (Knight et al. 1960).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): Conical or, less commonly, turbiniform, nodosely ornamented shells, narrowly phaneromphalous, or anomphalous with base excavated in middle; aperture quadrangular with strongly discordant lips; outer lip sharp, strongly prosocline; columellar lip straight, emerging from umbilicus or basal excavation, smooth, undulating or toothed, commonly forming marked angle with basal margin.

Trochinae [Trochidia, Trochini, Trochininae]
|--Paraclanculus Finlay 1927P61
| `--*P. peccatus Finlay 1927P61 [=Clanculus (*Paraclanculus) peccatusKC60]
|--Dimorphotectus Cossmann 1918MCS96
| `--D. fasciatus (Hoernes 1856) (see below for synonymy)KC60
|--Discotectus Favre 1913MCS96
| |--*D. massalongoi [=Trochus massalongoi]KC60
| `--D. crassiplicatusKC60
|--Tectus Montfort 1810WG71 (see below for synonymy)
| | i. s.: T. niloticus Linnaeus 1767BW09
| | T. fenestratus (Gmelin 1791)W93
| | *Pyramis’ viridis Schumacher 1817BR17
| | T. triserialis (Lamarck 1822)BW09
| |--*T. (Tectus)WG71
| | |--*T. (T.) mauritianus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus mauritianus]KC60
| | `--T. (T.) pyramis (Born 1778)WG71 [=Trochus (T.) pyramisWG71; incl. Tr. obeliscus Gmelin 1791WG71, W93]
| |--T. (Cardinalia Gray 1847)KC60
| | `--T. (*C.) virgatus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus virgatus]KC60
| `--T. (Rochia Gray 1857)KC60
| `--T. (R.) conus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus conus; incl. Tr. acutangulus (non-binomial), *Rochia acutangula]KC60
|--Thoristella Iredale 1915P61
| |--*T. chathamensis (Hutton 1873)P61 [=Polydonta chathamensisP61, Trochus (*Thoristella) chathamensisKC60]
| | |--T. c. chathamensisP61
| | |--T. c. aucklandica (Smith 1902)P61
| | |--T. c. benthicola Finlay 1927P61
| | |--T. c. cookiana Powell 1934P61
| | |--T. c. dunedinensis (Suter 1897)P61
| | |--T. c. fossilis Finlay 1927F27a
| | `--T. c. profunda Dell 1956P61
| |--T. carmesina (Webster 1908)P61 [=Monilea carmesinaF27a]
| `--T. oppressa (Hutton 1873)P61 [=T. chathamensis oppressaF27a]
|--Clanculus Montfort 1810KC60 [=Fragella Swainson 1840KC60; incl. Otavia Risso 1826KC60, Pulchrastele Iredale 1929W93]
| | i. s.: C. albinus Adams 1853H09
| | C. aloysii Tenison Woods 1876TW76
| | C. atropurpureus (Gould 1849) [=Trochus atropurpureus]H09
| | C. atypicusF27a
| | C. bicarinatus Angas 1880H09
| | C. brunneus Adams 1853W93
| | C. clanguloides (Wood 1828)W93
| | C. clangulus (Wood 1828)W93
| | C. comarilis Hedley 1912W93
| | C. consobrinus Tate 1893W93
| | C. denticulatus (Gray 1827) [incl. Monodonta lupinus Menke 1843]W93
| | C. dunkeri (Koch 1843)W93
| | C. floridus (Philippi 1850)W93
| | C. granosus Brazier 1877W93 [=Euchelus granosusH09]
| | C. granti Hedley 1907H09
| | C. johnstoni Hedley 1917W93
| | C. limbatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)W93
| | C. maugeri (Wood 1828)W93
| | C. maxillatus (Menke 1843)W93
| | C. nodoliratus [incl. Gibbula multicarinata]P79
| | C. ochroleucus (Philippi 1853)W93
| | C. personatus (Philippi 1846)W93
| | C. philomenae Tenison Woods 1876TW76
| | C. ringens (Menke 1843)M54, F27a [=Trochus ringensF27a]
| | C. septenarius (Melvill & Standen 1899)W93 (see below for synonymy)
| | C. stigmatarius Adams 1853H09
| | C. undatoides Tenison Woods 1879W93
| | C. unedo Adams 1853 [incl. C. margaritarius Philippi 1846]W93
| | C. weedingi Cotton 1938W93
| |--*C. (Clanculus) pharaonius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus pharaonius, *Fragella pharaonia]KC60
| |--C. (Camitia Gray ex Adams & Adams 1854)KC60
| | `--C. (*C.) pulcherrimus (Adams & Adams 1854) [=*Camitia pulcherrima]KC60
| |--C. (Clanculopsis Monterosato 1879) [incl. Clanculella Sacco 1896]KC60
| | `--C. (*C.) cruciatus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus cruciatus]KC60
| |--C. (Euclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934)KC60
| | `--C. (*E.) leucomphalus Verco 1905KC60
| |--C. (Euriclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934)KC60
| | `--C. (*E.) flagellatus (Philippi 1848)KC60, W93 [=Trochus flagellatusKC60]
| |--C. (Isoclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934)KC60
| | `--C. (I.) philippi (Koch 1843)W93 [incl. C. (*I.) yatesi Crosse 1863W93, KC60]
| |--C. (Macroclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934)KC60
| | `--C. (*M.) undatus (Lamarck 1816)KC60 [=Monodonta undataKC60; incl. C. occiduus Cotton & Godfrey 1934W93]
| |--C. (Mesoclanculus Iredale 1924)W93
| | `--C. (*M.) plebejus Philippi 1851P61, KC60 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (Microclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934)KC60
| | `--C. (*M.) euchelioides Tate 1893KC60 [incl. C. gatliffi Tomlin 1924W93]
| `--C. (Panocochlea Dall 1908)KC60
| `--C. (*P.) rubidus Dall 1908KC60
`--Trochus Linnaeus 1758BR05 [=Lamprostoma Swainson 1840KC60, Polydonta Schumacher 1817KC60]
| i. s.: T. affinisN79
| T. amabilisN79
| T. anthracophilusG31
| T. antipodum Wilckens 1922F27a
| T. asteriscus Reeve 1842R42
| T. astraliformis Lindström 1884LYR78
| T. auripigmentumC64
| T. bilixM87
| T. byronianus [incl. T. hotessierianus]G79
| T. cinereusN79
| T. circinatus Hutton 1873F27a
| T. digitatusC64
| T. excavatusG79
| T. fenestratus Gmelin 1791H09
| T. fenneonianusK54
| T. gemmosus Reeve 1842R42
| T. hanleyanus Reeve 1842 [incl. T. lineatus Lamarck 1822 non da Costa 1778]W93
| T. hexagonus Philippi 1846H09
| T. histrio Reeve 1842 [incl. T. calcaratus Souverbie 1875]W93
| T. inaequalis Martyn 1784 [incl. T. diadematus]C64
| T. intextus Kiener 1850H84
| T. millegranusN79
| T. montaguiN79
| T. mutus Finlay 1924 [=T. nodosus Hutton 1885 (preoc.)]F27b
| T. nitens [incl. Cantharidus punctulosus Adams 1853]H08
| T. occidentalis Mighels & Adams 1842J49
| T. pellucidusC64
| T. punctatus Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. radiatusC64
| T. rhodostomaR42
| T. stellatus (Gmelin 1791)W93
| T. striatellus Linnaeus 1758L58
| T. triserialis (Lamarck 1822)BW09
| T. tumidusN79
| T. varicosusU79
| T. vittatusC64
| T. zizyphinusN79
|--T. (Trochus)WG71
| |--*T. (T.) maculatus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Lamprostoma maculatum, *Polydonta maculata]KC60
| `--T. (T.) niloticus Linnaeus 1767G20, W93 (see below for synonymy)
|--T. (Belangeria Fischer 1879)KC60
| `--T. (*B.) scabrosus Philippi 1850KC60
|--T. (Coelotrochus Fischer 1880)P61 [incl. Neozelandia Cossmann 1918KC60]
| |--T. (*C.) tiaratus Quoy & Gaimard 1834P61 [=Polydonta tiarataH79]
| |--T. (C.) avarus Suter 1917 [=T. (Anthora) avarus]F27a
| `--T. (C.) huttoni (Cossmann 1918)P61 (see below for synonymy)
|--T. (Infundibulops Pilsbry 1889)KC60
| `--T. (*I.) erythraeus Brocchi 1821KC60
|--T. (Infundibulum Montfort 1810) [=Carinidea Swainson 1840]KC60
| |--T. (*I.) concavus Gmelin 1791 [=*Carinidea concava]KC60
| |--‘Carinidea’ aurea [incl. C. tasmanica]P79
| |--‘Infundibulum’ chlorostomus [incl. I. californicum]C64
| `--‘Infundibulum’ gabiotensisC64
|--T. (Praecia Gray 1857)KC60
| `--T. (*P.) elegantulus Wood 1828KC60
|--T. (Scalaetrochus Etheridge 1890)F71, KC60
| `--T. (*S.) lindstromi Etheridge 1890KC60, F71
`--T. (Thorista Iredale 1915)P61 [=Anthora Gray 1857 non Doubleday 1844KC60]
|--T. (T.) viridis Gmelin 1791P61 (see below for synonymy)
`--T. (T.) camelophorus Webster 1906P61

‘Cantharidus’ (*Plumbelenchus) capillaceus (Philippi 1848)P61 [=Trochus capillaceusP61; incl. C. pruninus var. minor Smith 1902F27a, P61, C. (Plumbelenchus) minorF27a]

Clanculus septenarius (Melvill & Standen 1899)W93 [=Calliostoma septenariumKC60, Astele (*Pulchrastele) septenariumW93, KC60]

Clanculus (*Mesoclanculus) plebejus Philippi 1851P61, KC60 [=Trochus plebejusKC60; incl. C. takapunaensis Webster 1906F27a, Mesoclanculus takapunaensisP61]

Dimorphotectus fasciatus (Hoernes 1856) [=Scoliostoma fasciatum; incl. Tectus hoernesi Koken 1896, *Dimorphotectus hoernesi]KC60

Tectus Montfort 1810WG71 [incl. Pyramidea Swainson 1840KC60, Pyramis Schumacher 1817 non Röding 1798KC60; Pyramidina, Pyramidinae]

Trochus (Coelotrochus) huttoni (Cossmann 1918)P61 [=*Neozelandia huttoniF27b; incl. Anthora conica Hutton 1883F27b, T. conicus (preoc.)F27b]

Trochus (Thorista) viridis Gmelin 1791P61 [incl. Polydonta tuberculata Gray 1843KC60, *Anthora tuberculataKC60, Trochus (*Thorista) tuberculatusP61]

Trochus (Trochus) niloticus Linnaeus 1767G20, W93 [incl. T. marmoratus Déshayes 1843H08, Astralium pagodus Tenison-Wood 1879H08]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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