Troguloidea

Pair of Dicranolasma soerensenii, copyright Salvatore Canu.

Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Nemastomatidae, Trogulidae.

The Troguloidea is a clade of harvestmen found in Holarctic region, primarily characterised by features of the genitalia. Members of this clade possess two muscles in the penis, and aciniform vaginal glands and outer circular muscles in the ovipositor (Giribet & Kury 2007).

<==Troguloidea [Eupagosterni, Troguloidae]
    |  i. s.: Eotrogulus Thévenin 1901 [Eotrogulidae]K18
    |           `--E. fayoli Thevenin 1901D07
    |         Nemastomoides Thévenin 1901D07 [NemastomoididaeK13]
    |           `--*N. elaveris Thévenin 1901KDM20
    |--+--NemastomatidaeDL23
    |  `--Ameticos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011GS14, GD11
    |       `--*A. scolos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011GD11
    `--+--Nipponopsalis Martens & Suzuki 1966M76 [NipponopsalididaeDL23]
       |    |--*N. abei (Sato & Suzuki 1939)S73 [=Ischyropsalis abeiM76]
       |    |    |--N. a. abeiS73
       |    |    `--N. a. longipes Suzuki 1973S73
       |    |--N. coreana (Suzuki 1966) [=Ischyropsalis coreana]S13
       |    `--N. yezoensis (Suzuki 1958) [=Ischyropsalis yezoensis]S13
       `--+--TrogulidaeDL23
          `--Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873GE02, R23 (see below for synonymy)
               |--*D. scabrum (Herbst 1799) [=Opilio scaber; incl. D. schmidti Hadži 1928]S13
               |--D. apuanum Marcellino 1971G98
               |--D. cretaeum Gruber 1998G98
               |--D. cristatum Thorell 1876G98
               |--D. giljarovi Šilhavý 1966G98
               |--D. hirtum Loman 1894 (see below for synonymy)S13
               |--D. hoberlandti Šilhavý 1956G98
               |--D. kurdistanum Staręga 1970G98
               |--D. mladeni Karaman 1990G98
               |--D. opilionoides (Koch 1867) (see below for synonymy)S13
               |--D. pauper Dahl 1903G98
               |--D. ponticum Gruber 1998G98
               |--D. ressli Gruber 1998G98
               |--D. soerensenii Thorell 1876S13 (see below for synonymy)
               |--D. thracium Staręga 1976G98
               `--D. verhoeffi Dahl 1903G98

Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873GE02, R23 [incl. Amopaum Sørensen 1873R23; Dicranolasmatidae, Dicranolasmatinae, Dicranolasmatini, Dicranolasmidae]

Dicranolasma hirtum Loman 1894 [incl. D. diomedeum Kulczyński 1907, D. diomedaeum (l. c.), D. napoli Goodnight & Goodnight 1944]S13

Dicranolasma opilionoides (Koch 1867) [=Trogulus opilionoides; incl. D. kettyi Marcellino 1968, D. kettyae, *Amopaum spinipalpe Sørensen 1873]S13

Dicranolasma soerensenii Thorell 1876S13 [=Amopaum soerenseniD04, D. soerenseniS13; incl. D. latifrons Simon 1879D04, D. wiehlei Kraus 1959D04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[DL23] Derkarabetian, S., A. Lord, K. Angier, E. Frigyik & G. Giribet. 2023. An Opiliones-specific ultraconserved element probe set with a near-complete family-level phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 187: 107887.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GD11] Garwood, R. J., J. A. Dunlop, G. Giribet & M. D. Sutton. 2011. Anatomically modern Carboniferous harvestmen demonstrate early cladogenesis and stasis in Opiliones. Nature Communications 2: 444.

[GS14] Garwood, R. J., P. P. Sharma, J. A. Dunlop & G. Giribet. 2014. A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Current Biology 24 (9): 1017–1023.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489–537.

[K13] Kury, A. B. 2013. Order Opiliones Sundevall, 1833. Zootaxa 3703: 27–33.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[KDM20] Kury, A. B., J. A. Dunlop & A. M. Mendes. 2020. On the allocation of some Palaeozoic and Tertiary harvestmen. In: Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018 pp. 49–51. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[M76] Martens, J. 1976. Genitalmorphologie, System und Phylogenie der Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones). Entomologica Germanica 3 (1–2): 51–68.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S73] Suzuki, S. 1973. Opiliones from the South-west Islands, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Division 1 (Zoology) 24: 205–279.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *