Caecum breve, copyright David Kirsh.

Belongs within: Littorinina.
Contains: Paleorissoininae, Bythinella, Pomatiopsinae, Amnicolinae, Baicaliinae, Anabathron (Scrobs), Lithoglyphinae, Potamopyrgus, Bithynia, Truncatella, Semisalsinae, Vitrinella, Garrettiinae, Assimineinae, Ctiloceratinae, Caecum (Caecum), Caecum (Brochina), Caecum (Fartulum), Macromphalina, Torninae, Teinostoma, IravadiaNozeba, Pyrgulinae, Belgrandiella, Horatia, Belgrandiinae, Hydrobiinae, Nymphophilinae.

The Truncatelloidea are a diverse clade of mostly small gastropods united primarily by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Members include the Hydrobiidae which are highly diverse in fresh- and brackish-water environments including many subterranean species. The brackish-water and marine Iravadiidae resemble Hydrobiidae but possess a weak to strong anterior channel on the aperture (vs no such channel in most Hydrobiidae; Ponder 1984). The marine Caecidae have a coiled protoconch leading to an uncoiled teleoconch; in the genus Caecum, the protoconch is shed during growth so the adult shell is a simple tube. The Tornidae possess a low-spired shell, usually with a widely open umbilicus. The Vitrinellidae resemble Tornidae in overall shell form and have been synonymised with tornids by some authors but differ in the presence of a conspicuous, elongate osphradium that is not found Tornidae (Bieler & Mikkelsen 1988). The Assimineidae are terrestrial snails, most diverse in tropical rainforests, with conical to turbinate shells bearing an ovate, thin-lipped aperture (Stanisic et al. 2010).

The Lithoglyphidae: let’s get fresh
Published 31 December 2014
Live individuals of Lithoglyphus naticoides, copyright Jan Steger.

In previous posts on this site, I’ve introduced you to members of the Hydrobiidae, a diverse family of mostly freshwater gastropods. Hydrobiids have long been recognised as a tricky group to work with, because of their small size and general shortage of distinctive shell features. In recent years, an understanding has developed that the ‘hydrobiids’ may include a number of lineages that became independently adapted to fresh water, and a number of previously recognised subfamilies of the Hydrobiidae have come to be recognised as their own distinct families. One of these ascended subgroups is the Lithoglyphidae.

Flat pebblesnails Lepyrium showalteri with eggs, copyright Friends of the Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge.

The Lithoglyphidae are a family of about 100 known species, mostly found in the Holarctic region (Strong et al. 2008), though they have also been recorded from South America. Most lithoglyphids have distinctively squat, relatively thick shells, and for a long time this was treated as one of the main defining features of the group. However, Thompson (1984) pointed out that the sturdy lithoglyphid shell was probably an adaptation to living in fast-flowing streams and rivers, and could also be found in other ‘hydrobiid’ groups. As well as reducing the shell profile, the lithoglyphid shell possesses a broad aperture that allows for a proportionately large foot, increasing the snail’s clinging power. Thompson (1984) identified a number of other features characteristic of lithoglyphids, including a spirally sculptured protoconch and a simple, blade-like penis that lacks accessory lobes or glandular structures. As the soft anatomy of many ‘hydrobiids’ has not yet been described, it is still possible that some taxa currently identified as lithoglyphids are in fact impostors. Conversely, confirmed lithoglyphids now include some taxa more divergent in shell shape, such as the limpet-like Lepyrium showalteri from Alabama. This species is distinctive enough that when first described it was identified as a neritid, a member of a group of gastropods not even closely related to lithoglyphids (imagine a new species of rodent being identified as a ratfish). Sadly, Lepyrium is also now endangered, being extinct in one of the two river catchments it was historically known from (see here). Thompson (1984) notes that another North American lithoglyphid genus, Clappia, may be entirely extinct. For at least one species, the cause of extinction was pollution from coal mining; no cause was specified for the other species, but according to Wikipedia its native habitat in the Coosa River has been modified by the construction of hydroelectric dams.

Shells of Benedictia baicalensis, from

Also closely related to the lithoglyphids are the Benedictiinae, a group of ‘hydrobiid’ gastropods endemic to Lake Baikal in Russia. A single species of benedictiine has been described from Lake Hövsgöl in Mongolia, but has not been collected there since; it seems likely that its original location was an error (Sitnikova et al. 2006). Baikal is a remarkable place: one of the world’s largest freshwater lakes (and easily the largest in terms of the volume of water it contains), it is basically a freshwater sea. While other large lakes such as the Rift Lakes of Africa are poorly oxygenated at deeper levels, effectively restricting most animal life to the surface layer, Baikal has oxygen-rich deeper waters allowing a rich deep-water animal community (this may also be related to the numerous hydrothermal vents in the depths of Baikal). Some of you may have heard of the endemic Baikal seal Phoca sibirica, but Baikal is also home to a wide diversity of endemic fish (including a dramatic radiation of sculpins), a remarkable array of endemic amphipods, and even its own endemic family of sponges. The Benedictiinae are currently classified as a separate subfamily of Lithoglyphidae, with the remainder of species in the Lithoglyphinae (Bouchet & Rocroi 2005), but as the relationship between the two subfamilies has not yet been examined in detail it is possible that the lithoglyphines are paraphyletic to the benedictiines. The benedictiines generally have thinner shells than the lithoglyphines, possibly related to the differences in their usual habitats.

Systematics of Truncatelloidea
    |--Calopia Ponder 1999BR05 [CalopiidaeBR17]
    |    `--*C. imitata Ponder 1999BR17
    |--Clenchiella Abbott 1948BR05 [ClenchiellidaeBR17, Clenchiellinae, Clenchiellini]
    |    `--*C. victoriae Abbott 1948BR17
    |--Falsicingula Habe 1958BR05 [FalsicingulidaeBR17]
    |    `--*F. kurilensis (Pilsbry 1905) [=Cingula kurilensis]BR17
    |--Helicostoa Lamy 1926BR05 [HelicostoidaeBR17]
    |    `--*H. sinensis Lamy 1926BR17
    |--Mesocochliopa Yen & Reeside 1946BR05 [MesocochliopidaeBR17]
    |    `--*M. assiminoides Yen & Reeside 1946BR17
    |--Hydrococcus Thiele 1928BR05 [HydrococcidaeBR17, Hydrococcinae]
    |    |--*H. graniformis Thiele 1928 [=Paludina granum Menke 1843 non Say 1822]BR17
    |    `--H. brazieri (Woods 1876)BM88 [=Assiminea brazieriP95]
    |    |--PalaeorissoininaeGK02
    |    `--Greveniella Harzhauser & Kowalke 2001 [Greveniellinae]GK02
    |         `--*G. mesohellenica Harzhauser & Kowalke 2001GK02
    |    |--Dissochilus lineatus (Briart & Cornet 1887)TTE93
    |    |--Elachisina Dall 1918BR05
    |    |    |--*E. grippi Dall 1918O27
    |    |    `--E. floridianaBK00
    |    `--Laeviphitus Van Aartsen, Bogi & Giusti 1989BK00
    |         `--L. japonicus Okutani, Fujikura & Sasaki 1993BK00
    |--Nematura Benson 1837 [=Stenothyra Benson 1856; Stenothyridae, Stenothyrinae]BR17
    |    |--*N. deltae Benson 1837 [=*Stenothyra deltae]BR17
    |    |--‘Stenothyra’ australis Hedley 1901H09
    |    `--‘Stenothyra’ pupiformis (Briart & Cornet 1887)TTE93
    |    |--BythinellaBR17
    |    `--Terrestribythinella Sitnikova, Starobogatov & Anistratenko 1992BR17, BR05 [Terrestribythinellidae]
    |         `--*T. baidashnikovi Sitnikova, Starobogatov & Anistratenko 1992BR17
    |--Pomatiopsidae [Triculidae, Triculinae]BR17
    |    |  i. s.: ProsotheniaTTE93
    |    |--PomatiopsinaeBR05
    |    `--Jullienia Crosse & Fischer 1876BR05 [Jullieniidae, JullieniinaeBR17, Jullieniini]
    |         `--*J. flava (Deshayes 1876) [=Melania flava]BR17
    |    |--Tomichia Benson 1851 [Tomichiinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*T. ventricosa (Sowerby 1842)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--Coxiella Smith 1894BR17, BR05 [Coxiellidae]
    |         |--*C. striatula (Menke 1843) [=Truncatella striatula]BR17
    |         |--C. gilesiPH10
    |         `--C. minima Macpherson 1954M54
    |--Amnicolidae [Amnicolae, Amnicoleae]BR17
    |    |  i. s.: Blanfordia Adams 1863PB27, BC01
    |    |           |--B. formosanaPB27
    |    |           |--B. nosophora (Robson 1915) [=Katayama nosophora]PB27
    |    |           `--B. viridescens (Pease 1861) [=Cyclostoma viridescens]BC01
    |    |         PeringiaPB27
    |    |--AmnicolinaeBR05
    |    `--BaicaliinaeBR05
    |--Epigrus Hedley 1903P27 [EpigridaeBR17]
    |    |--*E. ischnus (Tate 1899) [=Rissoa ischna]BR17
    |    |--E. columnaria May 1910W93
    |    |--E. cylindracea Tenison Woods 1878W93
    |    |--E. dissimilis (Watson 1886)W93 [=Eulima dissimilisH09]
    |    |--E. fossilisP27
    |    |--E. obesa Laseron 1956W93
    |    |--E. striatus Powell 1927P27
    |    `--E. verconis (Tate 1899) [=Rissoa verconis]H09
    |--Anabathron Frauenfeld 1867BR05 [AnabathridaeBR17, Anabathrinae, Anabathroninae]
    |    |  i. s.: A. ascensum Hedley 1907H09
    |    |         A. contortum Hedley 1907H09
    |    |         A. excelsusHS01
    |    |         A. foliatum (Suter 1908)P61
    |    |         A. hedleyiHS01
    |    |         A. rugulosusHS01
    |    |--*A. (Anabathron) contabulata Frauenfeld 1867BR17
    |    `--A. (Scrobs)TTE93
    |--Moitessieria Bourguignat 1863BR05 [Moitessieridae, MoitessieriidaeBR17, Moitessieriinae, Moitessierioidea]
    |    |--*M. simoniana (Saint-Simon 1848) [=Paludina simoniana]BR17
    |    |    |--M. s. simonianaBV86
    |    |    `--M. s. lescherae Boeters 1981BV86
    |    |--M. juvenisanguis Boeters & Gittenberger 1980BV86
    |    |--M. lineolata Coutagne 1881BV86
    |    |--M. locardi Coutagne 1883BV86
    |    |--M. olleriBV86
    |    |--M. rhodani Coutagne 1883BV86
    |    `--M. rollandiana Bourguignat 1863BV86
    |    |--LithoglyphinaeBR05
    |    `--Benedictiinae [Benedictieae, Benedictiidae, Benedictiini]BR05
    |         |--KobeltocochleaB50
    |         |    |--K. martensianaB50
    |         |    `--K. michnoiB50
    |         `--Benedictia Dybowski 1875BR05
    |              |--*B. (Benedictia) fragilis Dybowski 1875BR17
    |              |--B. andreae [=Paludina andreae]B50
    |              |--B. (Baicalocochlea) baicalensisB50
    |              `--B. (Dalainoria) limaeoidesB50
    |--Tateidae [Tateinae, Tateoidea]BR17
    |    |--PotamopyrgusBR05
    |    |--Tatea Tenison-Woods 1879BR05
    |    |    |--*T. huonensis (Tenison-Woods 1876)BR17 [=Bythinia huonensisBR17, Bythinella huonensisL79]
    |    |    `--T. rufilabrisH15
    |    |--Hemistomia Crose 1872 [Hemistomiidae, Hemistomiinae]BR05
    |    |    |--*H. caledonica Crosse 1872BR17
    |    |    `--H. minutissima Ponder 1982BV86
    |    `--Pyrgophorus Ancey 1888PB27
    |         |--*P. spinosus [=Pyrgulopsis spinosa]PB27
    |         `--P. reevei (Frauenfeld 1863)BV86
    |--Bithyniidae [Bithiniadae, Bithynioidea, Bulimidae, Buliminae, Bythiniae]BR17
    |    |--TylopomaG88
    |    |--BithyniaBR05
    |    |--Fossarulus Neumayr 1869 [Fossarulinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*F. stachei Neumayr 1869BR17
    |    |--Parafossarulus Annandale 1924 [Parafossarulinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*P. striatulus (Benson 1842) [=Paludina striatula]BR17
    |    |--Alocinma Annandale & Prashad 1919PB27
    |    |    `--*A. sistanica [=Amnicola sistanica]PB27
    |    `--Mysorella Godwin-Austen 1919BR05 [=Mysoria Godwin-Austen 1919 non Watson 1893BR17; Mysorellinae]
    |         |--*M. curta (Nevill 1884)BR17 [=Bythinia curtaBR17, Bithynia costigera var. curtaPB27, *Mysoria curtaBR17]
    |         `--M. multisulcata (Bourguignat 1888) [=Bythinia multisulcata]PB27
    |    |--Emmericiinae [Emmericieae]BR05
    |    |    |--Pyrgidium Tournouër 1869 non Nylander 1867 (ICBN) [Pyrgidiidae]BR05
    |    |    |    `--*P. nodotianum (Tournouër 1866) [=Pyrgula nodotiana]BR17
    |    |    `--Emmericia Brusina 1870BR05
    |    |         `--E. ventricosa Brusina 1870BV86
    |    `--Fontigens Pilsbry 1933 [=Stimpsonia Clessin 1878 non Bate & Westwood 1863; Fontigentinae]BR17
    |         |--*F. nickliniana (Lea 1838) [=Paludina nickliniana, *Stimpsonia nickliniana]BR17
    |         |--F. aldrichi (Call & Beecher 1886)BV86
    |         |--F. cryptica Hubricht 1962BV86
    |         |--F. holsingeri Hubricht 1976BV86
    |         |--F. orolibas Hubricht 1957BV86
    |         |--F. tartarea Hubricht 1962BV86
    |         `--F. turritella Hubricht 1976BV86
    |    |--TruncatellaBR05
    |    |--Blandiella Guppy 1871BC01
    |    |    `--B. reclusa Guppy 1871BC01
    |    |--Taheitia Adams & Adams 1863BC01
    |    |    `--T. whitneyi Clench 1958BC01
    |    `--Geomelania Pfeiffer 1845 [Geomelaniidae, Geomelaniinae]BR05
    |         |  i. s.: G. affinis Adams 1850BC01
    |         |         G. minor Adams 1849BC01
    |         |--G. (Geomelania)BC01
    |         |    |--*G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer 1845BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |    `--G. (G.) typica Adams 1850 [incl. G. vicina Adams 1850]BC01
    |         `--G. (Merrilliana Clench & Turner 1948)BC01
    |              |--G. (*M.) elegans Adams 1849BC01
    |              |--G. (M.) lirata (Poey 1858) [=Truncatella lirata]BC01
    |              `--G. (M.) pygmaea (Adams 1845) [=Cylindrella pygmaea]BC01
    |    |--SemisalsinaeBR05
    |    |--Littoridininae [Littoridineae, Littoridinidae, Littoridinini, Littoridinoidea]BR05
    |    |    |--Littoridina Souleyet 1852BR05
    |    |    |    `--*L. gaudichaudii Souleyet 1852BR17
    |    |    `--Cochliopina Morrison 1946T84
    |    |         `--C. compacta (Pilsbry 1910)BV86
    |    `--Cochliopinae [Mexithaumatidae, Mexithaumatinae]BR05
    |         |--PotamolithoidesGS75
    |         |--LithococcusGS75
    |         |--Cochliopa Stimpson 1865 [Cochliopini]BR05
    |         |    `--*C. rowellii (Tryon 1863) [=Amnicola rowellii]BR17
    |         |--Mexithauma Taylor 1966BR05
    |         |    `--*M. quadripaludium Taylor 1966BR17
    |         `--Paludiscala Taylor 1966 [Paludiscalinae]BR05
    |              `--*P. caramba Taylor 1966BR17
    |    |--VitrinellaBR05
    |    |--Cenomanella Cossmann 1918TTE93, KC60
    |    |    `--*C. archiaciana (Orbigny 1847)KC60, TTE93 [=Rotella archiacianaKC60]
    |    |--SolariorbisM65
    |    |    |--S. blakeiM65
    |    |    `--S. semipunctus Moore 1965M65
    |    |--Callomphala Adams & Angas 1864 [Callomphalidae]W93
    |    |    |--*C. lucida (Adams & Angas 1864) [=Neritula lucida]BR17
    |    |    |--C. alta Laseron 1984W93
    |    |    `--C. globosa Hedley 1901H09
    |    |--Pseudoliotia Tate 1893W93
    |    |    |--*P. micans (Adams 1850)W93, K90
    |    |    |--P. angasi Crosse 1864W93
    |    |    |--P. clathrataM54
    |    |    `--P. speciosa Angas 1871W93
    |    `--Circulus Jeffreys 1865BR17, BR05 [Circulidae, Circulinae]
    |         |--C. striatus (Philippi 1836) (see below for synonymy)BM88
    |         |--C. cosmius Bartsch 1907O27
    |         |--C. inornatus Marshall 1919F26
    |         |--C. liratusJ65
    |         |--C. philippii (Cantraine 1842) [=Solarium philippii]KC60
    |         |--C. rossellinus Dall 1919O27
    |         `--C. texanus (Moore 1965) [=Vitrinella texana, Vitridomus texana]BM88
    |--Assimineidae [Assemaniidae, Assimineidae, Assimineoidea, Assiminiidae, Schistopelmata]BR17
    |    |  i. s.: NesopomaBC01
    |    |           |--N. eyerdami Clench 1958BC01
    |    |           `--N. galathea Clench 1958BC01
    |    |         Setaepoma mayri Clench 1958BC01
    |    |         CryptassimineaPC08
    |    |         Ditropisena whitei (Brazier 1874)SS10
    |    |         Limborelia Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |           |--*L. exquisita (Pfeiffer 1855) [=Hydrocena exquisitor; incl. Omphalotropis pfeifferi Crosse 1868]SS10
    |    |           `--L. innesi Iredale 1944 [incl. L. innesi adjuncta Iredale 1944]SS10
    |    |         Opinorelia Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |           `--*O. howeinsulae Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |         Duritropis Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |           `--D. albocarinata (Mousson 1873) (see below for synonymy)SS10
    |    |         Telmosena Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |           `--*T. suteri (Sykes 1900) [=Omphalotropis suteri]SS10
    |    |         ‘Cyclostoma’ brazieri Cox 1870G78
    |    |         Suterilla Thiele 1927P61
    |    |           `--*S. neozelanica (Murdoch 1899) [=Cirsonella neozelanica]P61
    |    |         Turbacmella europaea Hrubesch 1965TTE93
    |    |         Aviassiminea palitansPH10
    |    |--GarrettiinaeBR17
    |    |--AssimineinaeBR05
    |    `--EkadantinaeBR05
    |         |--Ekadanta Rao 1928BR05
    |         |    `--*E. shanensis Rao 1928BR17
    |         |--Paludinella Pfeiffer 1841 [Paludinellidae]BR05
    |         |    |--*P. globularis (Hanley in Thorpe 1844) [=Cingula globularis]BR17
    |         |    `--P. andrewsiana (Smith 1900) [=Assiminea andrewsiana, Angustassiminea andrewsiana]JG19
    |         `--Cyclotropis Tapparone-Canefri 1883 [Cyclotropidae]BR05
    |              `--*C. papuensis Tapparone Canefri 1883BR17
    |--Caecidae [Caecoidea]BR17
    |    |--CtiloceratinaeBR05
    |    |--Strebloceras Carpenter 1859 [Strebloceratinae, Streblocerinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*S. cornuoides Carpenter 1859BR17
    |    `--Caecum Fleming 1813BR05 [incl. Odontidium Philippi 1836APS-P86; Caecinae]
    |         |  i. s.: C. angustum de Folin 1879W93
    |         |         C. californicum Dall 1885 [=C. cooperi Carpenter 1864 non Smith 1862]O27
    |         |         C. clathratumC64
    |         |         C. cooperi Smith 1862O27
    |         |         C. dalli Bartsch 1920O27
    |         |         C. diegense Bartsch 1920O27
    |         |         C. ‘eburneum’ de Folin 1879 non Adams 1852W93
    |         |         C. grippi Bartsch 1920O27
    |         |         C. imbricatumHC79
    |         |         C. insularum Moore 1970BC01
    |         |         C. licalum Bartsch 1920O27
    |         |         C. lilianum Hedley 1903H09
    |         |         C. liratocinctumC64
    |         |         C. microcyclus de Folin 1879H09
    |         |         C. pulchellumWE63
    |         |         C. semilaeveC64
    |         |         C. subflavum de Folin 1879H09
    |         |         C. subimpressumC64
    |         |         C. succineum de Folin 1879H09
    |         |         C. undatumC64
    |         |         C. warmi Raines & Pizzini 2009WBS-S15
    |         |--C. (Caecum)APS-P86
    |         |--C. (Brochina)APS-P86
    |         |--C. (Elephantulum Carpenter 1857) [incl. Elephantanellum Bartsch 1920, Quadrulata Folin 1867]APS-P86
    |         |    |--C. (*E.) hexagonumO27
    |         |    |--C. (E.) abbreviatum Folin in Folin & Périer 1870APS-P86
    |         |    |--C. (E.) bicinctum Folin in Folin & Périer 1870APS-P86
    |         |    |--C. (E.) breve Folin 1867APS-P86
    |         |    |--‘Elephantulum’ carpenteri Bartsch 1920O27
    |         |    `--C. (E.) clava Folin 1867APS-P86
    |         |--C. (Fartulum)APS-P86
    |         `--C. (Meioceras Carpenter 1857)APS-P86
    |              |--C. (M.) cubitatum Folin in Folin & Périer 1868 [incl. C. tenerum Folin 1869]APS-P86
    |              |--C. (M.) sandwichensis Folin 1881APS-P86
    |              `--C. (M.) subinflexum Folin in Folin & Périer 1869APS-P86
    |--Tornidae [Tornoidea, Tornoidei]BR17
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Cyclostrema’ bushi Dautzenberg & Fischer 1907BM88
    |    |         *Pleuromalaxis balesi (Pilsbry & McGinty 1945)BM88
    |    |         Parviturboides interruptus (Adams 1850)BM88
    |    |         Vitridomus Pilsbry & Olsson 1945BM88
    |    |         Anticlimax decorata Rolán, Fernández-Garcés & Rubio 1997BC01
    |    |         Vitrinorbis arabscripta Rolán & Rubio 1996BC01
    |    |         Scissilabra Bartsch 1907O27
    |    |           `--*S. dalli Bartsch 1907O27
    |    |         TomuraBM88
    |    |           |--*T. bicaudata (Pilsbry & McGinty 1946)BM88
    |    |           `--T. abscondita Rolán & Rubio 1999BC01
    |    |         CochliolepisBM88
    |    |           |--*C. parasitica Stimpson 1858BM88
    |    |           |--C. albicerata Ponder 1966BM88
    |    |           `--C. reductus Rolán & Rubio 1990BC01
    |    |         Scrupus Finlay 1927BM88
    |    |           |--*S. hyalinus (Odhner 1924) [=Fossarus hyalinus]P61
    |    |           |--S. marmoratus (Hedley 1907) [=Cithna marmorata]F26
    |    |           |--S. minutus (Michaud 1827)F26, F27 [=Fossarus minutusF27]
    |    |           `--S. uniliratus Powell 1931P61
    |    |         Naricava Hedley 1913P61, F26 [incl. MicrescharaF26]
    |    |           |  i. s.: N. angulata Hedley 1905W93
    |    |           |         N. flindersi Cotton & Godfrey 1932W93
    |    |           |         N. huttoni (Marwick 1924) (see below for synonymy)F27
    |    |           |         N. kimberi Verco 1907W93
    |    |           |         N. vincentiana Angas 1880W93
    |    |           |--*N. (Naricava) angasi [=Adeorbis angasi]F27
    |    |           `--N. (Tropidorbis Iredale 1936)P61
    |    |                |--N. (*T.) mendica [=*Tropidorbis mendicus]P61
    |    |                `--N. (T.) neozelanica Powell 1940P61
    |    |         Cyclostremiscus Pilsbry & Olsson 1945 [incl. Ponocyclus Pilsbry 1953]BM88
    |    |           |--*C. panamensis (Adams 1852) [=Vitrinella panamensis]BM88
    |    |           |--‘Cyclostrema’ angulata Adams 1850BM88
    |    |           |--C. beauii (Fischer 1857) (see below for synonymy)BM88
    |    |           |--C. gordanus (Hertlein & Strong 1951) [=Cyclostrema gordana]BM88
    |    |           |--C. major Olsson & Smith 1951BM88
    |    |           `--C. pentagonus (Gabb 1837) [incl. Circulus trilix (Bush 1885)]BM88
    |    |         MacromphalinaBC01
    |    |         PygmaeorotaP08
    |    |         SigaretornusBR17
    |    |--TorninaeBR17
    |    `--TeinostomaBR17
    |--Iravadiidae [Fairbankiidae, Fairbankiinae]BR17
    |    |--IravadiaP84
    |    |--Rehderiella Brandt 1974 [Rehderiellidae, Rehderiellinae, Rehderielloidea]BR05
    |    |    `--*R. parva (Lea 1856) [=Pachychilus parvus]BR17
    |    |--Liroceratia Ponder 1984P84
    |    |    |--*L. sulcata (Boettger 1893) [=Cingula sulcata; incl. Pellamora minatura Laseron 1956]P84
    |    |    `--‘Rissoa’ truncata Garrett 1873P84
    |    |--Acliceratia Ponder 1984P84
    |    |    |--*A. beddomei (Dautzenberg 1912) [=Aclis beddomei]P84
    |    |    `--A. carinata (Smith 1871)P84 [=Aclis carinataP84, A. walleri var. carinataN79]
    |    |--Hyala Adams & Adams 1852BR05
    |    |    |--*H. vitrea (Montagu 1803) [=Turbo vitreus; incl. H. mediterranea Nordsieck 1972]P84
    |    |    |--H. adamsi Golikov & Kussakin 1971P84
    |    |    `--H. rotundataC64
    |    |--Rhombostoma Seguenza 1876 [=Eulimopsis Brugnone 1881]P84
    |    |    |--*R. carmelae (Brugnone 1873) [=Eulima carmelae, *Eulimopsis carmelae]P84
    |    |    |--R. imperforatum (Sacco 1892) [=Ondina imperforata; incl. O. pliobliqua Sacco 1892]P84
    |    |    `--R. striatum (Hörnes 1856) [=Chemnitzia striata]P84
    |    |--Ceratia Adams & Adams 1852 [incl. Hebetaclis Pilsbry 1922]P84
    |    |    |--*C. proxima Alder in Forbes & Hanley 1850 [incl. Rissoa striatuls Jeffreys 1847 (preoc.)]P84
    |    |    |--C. alta (Gabb 1873) [=Auriculina alta, *Hebetaclis alta]P84
    |    |    `--C. minutissima Cossmann 1888P84
    |    |--Rissopsis Garrett 1873P84
    |    |    |--*R. typica Garrett 1873P84
    |    |    |--R. prolongata (Turton 1932) [=Rissopsis prolongata; incl. R. ligula Kilburn 1975]P84
    |    |    `--R. tuba Kilburn 1977P84
    |    |--Chevallieria Cossmann 1888 [incl. Nanadoma Laseron 1956]P84
    |    |    |--*C. labrosa Cossmann 1888P84
    |    |    |--C. australis Ponder 1984P84
    |    |    |--C. balcombensis Ponder 1984P84
    |    |    |--C. columen (Melvill 1904) [=Rissoina columen; incl. R. (Scrobs) elspethae Melvill 1910]P84
    |    |    |--C. cylindroides Cossmann 1907P84
    |    |    |--C. gippslandica Ponder 1984P84
    |    |    `--C. imitoris (Laseron 1956) [=*Nanadoma imitoris]P84
    |    `--NozebaP84
    `--Hydrobiidae [Hydrobiae]BR17
         |  i. s.: Fluvidona Iredale 1937PC96
         |           |--*F. petterdi (Smith 1882) [=Hydrobia petterdi]PC96
         |           `--F. centralia Ponder, Colgan et al. 1996PC96
         |         0--JardinellaPC96
         |         `--+--Fonscochlea Ponder et al. 1989PC96
         |            |    `--F. aquaticaBRW98
         |            `--Dalhousia Ponder, Colgan et al. 1996PC96
         |                 |--*D. globosa Ponder, Colgan et al. 1996PC96
         |                 `--D. harrisi Ponder, Colgan et al. 1996PC96
         |         Islamia Radoman 1973 [Islamiidae, Islamiinae]BR05
         |           |--*I. servaini (Bourguignat 1887) [=Horatia servaini]BR17
         |           `--I. pusilla (Piersanti 1952) [incl. Valvata troglobia Piersanti 1952]BV86
         |         Pseudamnicola Paulucci 1878 [Pseudamnicolinae]BR05
         |           |--*P. macrostoma (Küster 1852) [=Paludina macrostoma]BR17
         |           |--P. acuta Pan 1982TTE93
         |           |--P. klemmi Boeters 1969BV86
         |           |--P. likharevi Izzatulaev 1973BV86
         |           |--P. lindbergi Boettger 1957BV86
         |           `--P. pallida (Martens 1874)BV86
         |         PyrgulinaeBR05
         |         MexipyrgusHH88
         |           |--M. carranzaeHH88
         |           |--M. churinceanusHH88
         |           |--M. lugoiHH88
         |           `--M. mojarralisHH88
         |         Pyrgulopsis ozarkensis Hinkley 1915BC01
         |         Soapitia Binder 1961BC01
         |           `--*S. dageti Binder 1961BC01
         |         Subcochliopa Morrison 1946BC01
         |           `--*S. trochus Morrison 1946BC01
         |         AustropyrgusPC08
         |         AscorhisPC08
         |         Clessinia variabilis (Eichwald 1841) [=Paludina variabilis]S01
         |         BelgrandiellaBR17
         |         Caspia Clessin & Dybowski 1887 [Caspiidae, Caspiinae]BR17
         |           `--*C. baerii Dybowski 1887BR17
         |         Mercuria Boeters 1971 [Mercuriinae]BR17
         |           `--*M. confusa (Frauenfeld 1863) [=Amnicola confusa]BR17
         |         Horatiinae [Horatiidae]BR17
         |           |--HoratiaBR05
         |           |--Tanousia Bourguignat in Servain 1881 (see below for synonymy)BR05
         |           |    |--*T. zrmanjae (Brusina 1866) [=Lymnaea zrmanjae]BR17
         |           |    `--*Lithoglyphulus’ tedanicus Schlickum & Schütt 1971BR17
         |           |--‘Orientalina’ Radoman 1978 non Kolosnitsyna 1973 (see below for synonymy)BR05
         |           |    |--*O. curta (Kürster 1852) [=Paludina curta, *Orientalia curta]BR17
         |           |    `--O. troglobia (Bole 1961)BV86
         |           `--Sadleriana Clessin 1887BR17, BR05 [Sadlerianidae, Sadlerianinae]
         |                |--*S. fluminensis (Kuster 1853)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         |                |--S. bavarica Boeters 1989SW04
         |                |--S. cavernosa Radoman 1978SW04
         |                `--S. schmidti (Menke 1849)BV86
         |         TrochidrobiaBW04
         |         Cylindrica Clessin 1882BK20
         |         Antroselates Hubricht 1963H63
         |           `--*A. spiralis Hubricht 1963H63
         |         Pseudobythinella Melville 1956DR97
         |         BeddomeiaBRW98
         |         FluviopupaBRW98
         |         PhrantelaBRW98
         |         Posticobia norfolkensisBRW98
         |         AngrobiaBRW98
         |         NanocochleaBRW98
         |         VictodrobiaBRW98
         |         Pseudotricula eberhardiBRW98
Nomen nudum: Littoridina jumandi Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86

Circulus striatus (Philippi 1836) [=Valvata striata; incl. Delphinula duminyi Requien 1848, *Circulus duminyi, Trochus duminyi]BM88

Cyclostremiscus beauii (Fischer 1857) [=Adeorbis beauii, Cyclostrema beani (l. c.), Cyclostremiscus (*Ponocyclus) beauii, Vitrinella (Solariorbis) beaui; incl. Cyclostrema bicarinata Guppy 1866, Adeorbis beaui var. bicarinata, Circulus bicarinatus, Cyclostremiscus (Ponocyclus) beaui bicarinatus, Ci. stirophorus Smith 1937, Skenea sulcata Bush in Simpson 1887 (n. n.)]BM88

Duritropis albocarinata (Mousson 1873) [incl. Omphalotropis brenchleyi Sykes 1900, *D. brenchleyi, D. fortilirata Iredale 1945]SS10

*Geomelania (Geomelania) jamaicensis Pfeiffer 1845BR17 [incl. G. expansa Adams 1849BC01, G. fortis Adams 1850BC01, G. gracilis Adams 1850BC01, G. magna Adams 1850BC01, G. media Adams 1850BC01]

Naricava huttoni (Marwick 1924) [=Micreschara (Macromphalina) huttoni, Sigaretus carinatus Hutton 1877 non Münster 1841]F27

‘Orientalina’ Radoman 1978 non Kolosnitsyna 1973 [incl. Orientalia Radoman 1972 non Bykova 1947; Orientaliidae, Orientalinidae]BR05

*Sadleriana fluminensis (Kuster 1853)BR17 [=Paludina fluminensisBR17, Lithoglyphus (Sadleriana) fluminensisSW04]

Tanousia Bourguignat in Servain 1881 [=Lithoglyphulus Schlickum & Schütt 1971; Lithoglyphulidae, Tanousiidae]BR05

*Tomichia ventricosa (Sowerby 1842)BR17 [=Truncatella ventricosaBR17; incl. Tr. ventricosa var. brevis Krauss 1848PB27, Tomichia ventricosa var. brevisPB27, Hydrobia caledonensis Chaper 1885PB27, Truncatella capensis Krauss in Pfeiffer 1846PB27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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