Trypoxylini

Pison koreense, from here.

Belongs within: Crabronidae.
Contains: Trypoxylon (Trypoxylon), Trypoxylon (Trypargilum), Pison (Pison).

The Trypoxylini are a group of apoid wasps characterised by notched inner orbits on the compound eyes and often reduced venation in the fore wings (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976, as Trypoxylonini): Inner orbits angularly emarginate (notched), emargination rarely weak; ocelli normal. Antennal sockets low on face, oftne contiguous with frontoclypeal suture; male with elevenb flagellomeres (exceptionally ten). Clypeus variable, usually with median projection or lobe; labrum small. Externoventral margin of mandible entire (occasionally notched), inner margin simple (occasionally a single median tooth or apically bidentate); mouthparts short; (c) mandibular socket open. Pronotal collar high, usually narrow and not closely appressed to scutum; posterolateral margin of propleuron usually lamellate, posterolateral angle usually declivous and set off from rest of propleuron by inner ridge or hump. Scutum with or without notauli. Episternal sulcus present, omaulus and subomaulus rarely present. Female foreleg without a tarsal rake; hind femur simple apically; mid coxae widely separated to contiguous, arolia moderate to large, equal on all legs; male fore coxa and trochanter unmodified. Propodeum short to long; enclosure often undefined; propodeal sternite sometimes present. One, two, or three submarginal cells, cell II petiolate when three are present; two recurrent veins except one in wings with only one submarginal cell, end point of veins variable; marginal cell often acuminate. Jugal lobe small, less than half length of anal area; hamuli usually divided into two groups. Gaster sessile or petiolate; pygidial plate usually not defined. Volsella present; gonostyle simple or bifurcate apically.

<==Trypoxylini [Trypoxyloninae]GOY03
|--Pisoxylon Menke 1968BM76
| `--*P. xanthosoma Menke 1968BM76
|--Aulacophilus Smith 1869BM76
| |--*A. vespoides Smith 1869BM76
| |--A. eumenoides Ducke 1904BM76
| `--A. jansoni Turner 1916BM76
|--Trypoxylon Latreille 1796C85 (see below for synonymy)
| | i. s.: T. appendiculatum Tsuneki 1974BM76
| | T. deceptorium Antropov 1991GOY03
| | T. latilobatum Antropov 1991GOY03
| | T. monstruosum Tsuneki 1974BM76
| | T. pappi Tsuneki 1974BM76
| |--T. (Trypoxylon)BM76
| `--T. (Trypargilum)BM76
|--Pisonopsis Fox 1893BM76
| |--*P. clypeata Fox 1893BM76
| | |--P. c. clypeataBM76
| | `--P. c. occidentalis Williams 1954BM76
| |--P. areolata (Spinola 1851) (see below for synonymy)BM76
| |--P. australis Fritz 1965BM76
| |--P. birkmanni Rohwer 1909BM76
| `--P. triangularis Ashmead 1899BM76
| |--P. t. triangularisBM76
| `--P. t. californica Williams 1954BM76
`--Pison Jurine in Spinola 1808 [=Pisum Agassiz 1847 non Megerle 1811]BM76
| i. s.: P. antiquumSN18
| P. cockerellae Rohwer 1908BM76
| P. oligocenum Cockerell 1908 [=P. oligocaenum Cockerell 1909]BM76
|--P. (Pison)C85
|--P. (Entomopison Menke 1968)BM76
| |--P. (*E.) pilosum Smith 1873BM76
| |--P. (E.) aureofaciale Strand 1910BM76
| `--P. (E.) convexifrons Taschenberg 1870BM76
|--P. (Krombeiniellum Richards 1962) [=Paraceramius Radoszkowski 1887 non Saussure 1854]BM76
| |--P. (*K.) koreense (Radoszkowski 1887) [=*Paraceramius koreensis]BM76
| |--P. (K.) browni (Ashmead 1905) [=Pisonoides browni]BM76
| |--P. (K.) differens Turner 1916BM76
| |--P. (K.) duckei Menke 1968BM76
| |--P. (K.) krombeini Menke 1968BM76
| |--P. (K.) neotropicum Menke 1968BM76
| |--P. (K.) plaumanni Menke 1968BM76
| `--P. (K.) stangei Menke 1968BM76
`--P. (Pisonoides Smith 1858)C85 [=Parapison Smith 1869BM76]
|--P. (*P.) obliteratum Smith 1858C85 [=*Parapison obliteratumBM76]
|--P. (P.) difficile Turner 1908 [=P. (Aulacophilus) difficile]C85
`--P. (P.) icarioides Turner 1908 [=P. (Aulacophilus) icarioides]C85

Nomina nuda: Trypoxylon annulatum Cameron in Richards 1934 non Brèthes 1913BM76
Trypoxylon aureosericeum Schrottky 1913BM76
Trypoxylon hispanicum Mercet in Richards 1934BM76
Trypoxylon meridionale Gussakovskij 1936 non Richards 1934BM76
Trypoxylon simlaense Cameron in Richards 1934BM76

Pisonopsis areolata (Spinola 1851) [=Pison areolatum; incl. Pisonopsis anomala Mantero 1901, Pison variicornis Reed 1894]BM76

Trypoxylon Latreille 1796C85 [=Apius Panzer 1806BM76, Tripoxilon Spinola 1806BM76, Trypoxilon Jurine 1807BM76, Trypoxylum Schulz 1906BM76]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GOY03] Gayubo, S. F., H. Özbek & E. Yıldırım. 2003. A contribution to the knowledge of Spheciformes of Turkey: tribes Astatini, Dinetini, Larrini, Palarini and Trypoxylini (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Crabronidae). Zoology in the Middle East 29: 83–92.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.

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