Tubificida

Section of genitalic segments of Phreodrilus linnaei, male genitalia to the left and spermathecal duct to the right, from Pinder (2008).

Belongs within: Clitellata.
Contains: Phreodrilus, Enchytraeidae, Branchiobdellida, Hirudinea, Trichodrilus, Phallodrilinae.

The Tubificida are a group of small, mostly aquatic oligochaetes that include many of the best-known freshwater worms.

Characters (from Jamieson 1988): One pair of testes followed by one pair of ovaries; male pores anterior to female pores; male ducts penetrating one intersegment. Sperm with no connectives; acrosome very short.

<==Tubificida [Tubificina]J88
    |  i. s.: Dorydrilus Piguet 1913JD86 [DorydrilidaeJ88]
    |           |--D. michaelseni Piguet 1913JD86
    |           |--D. mirabilis Hrabĕ 1936JD86
    |           `--D. tetrathecus Hrabĕ 1960JD86
    |         OpistocystaR74 [OpistocystidaeJ88]
    |           |--O. flagellum (Leidy 1880)R74
    |           `--O. funiculus Cordero 1948R74
    |--PhreodrilidaeRP07
    |    |--Antarctodrilus proboscidea (Brinkhurst & Fulton 1979)RP07
    |    |--Phreodriloides Benham 1907G09b
    |    |    `--P. notabilis Benham 1907ED08
    |    |--Astacopsidrilus Goddard 1909G09a
    |    |    |--A. edwardi Pinder 2003P08
    |    |    |--A. fusiformis Goddard 1909G09a
    |    |    |--A. notabilis Goddard 1909G09a
    |    |    `--A. novus Jackson 1931J31
    |    |--Insulodrilus Brnkhurst 1991P08
    |    |    |--*I. lacustris (Benham 1903) [=Phreodrilus lacustris]P08
    |    |    |--I. angela Pinder 2008P08
    |    |    |--I. bifidusJD12
    |    |    |--I. genitalisetifera Martin & Brinkhurst 1994P08
    |    |    |--I. litoralis Michaelsen 1903P08
    |    |    `--I. martensi Martin & Giani 1995P08
    |    `--PhreodrilusP08
    `--+--+--+--EnchytraeidaeRP07
       |  |  `--Propappus Michaelsen 1905RP07, D90 [Propappidae]
       |  |       `--P. volki Michaelsen 1916RP07
       |  `--+--HirudinomorphaA99
       |     |    |--HirudineaSS07
       |     |    `--BranchiobdellidaA99
       |     |         |  i. s.: XironogitonA99
       |     |         |           |--X. instabiliaA99
       |     |         |           `--X. victoriensisWPB98
       |     |         |         Sathodrilus attenuatusWPB98
       |     |         |--BranchiobdellidaeJD12
       |     |         |    |--Branchiobdella parasitaJD12
       |     |         |    `--Cirrodrilus sapporensisJD12
       |     |         |--Bdellodrilus [Discodrilidae]G09a
       |     |         `--Cambarincola A99 [CambarincolidaeJD12]
       |     |              `--C. pamelaeJD12
       |     `--Lumbriculidae [Lumbriculata, Lumbriculida, Prospora]JD12
       |          |--TrichodrilusJD86
       |          |--Eclipidrilus frigidus Eisen 1881RP07
       |          |--RhynchelmisRP07
       |          |    |--R. brachycephalisB50b
       |          |    |--R. komarekiB50b
       |          |    `--R. tetratheca (Michaelsen 1920)RP07
       |          |--Spelaedrilus Cook 1975JD86
       |          |    `--S. multiporus Cook 1975JD86
       |          |--Guestphalinus Michaelsen 1933JD86
       |          |    `--G. wiardi Michaelsen 1933JD86
       |          |--Hrabea Yamaguchi 1936JD86
       |          |    `--H. ogumai Yamaguchi 1936JD86
       |          |--LumbriculusSS07
       |          |    |--L. hoffmeisteriKA01
       |          |    `--L. variegatus (Mueller 1774)SS07
       |          |--Bythonomus Grube 1889JD86
       |          |    |--B. beattiei Cook 1975JD86
       |          |    |--B. lehmanniJ88
       |          |    `--B. sulci Hrabĕ 1934JD86
       |          |--AgriodrilusB50a
       |          |--Lamprodrilus Michaelsen 1901JD86
       |          |    |--L. isoporusB50a
       |          |    |--L. michaelseniJD86
       |          |    |    |--L. m. michaelseniJD86
       |          |    |    `--L. m. carpaticus Botea 1978JD86
       |          |    |--L. mrazekiB50a
       |          |    |--L. pygmaeusB50a
       |          |    `--L. tolliB50a
       |          `--Stylodrilus heringianusJD12
       `--Tubificidae [Naididae]RP07
            |  i. s.: Tubifex Lamarck 1816 [=Tubifer (l. c.) non Piette 1856]BR05
            |           |--T. davidis Benham 1907ED08
            |           |--T. flabellisetosus Hrabĕ 1966JD86
            |           |--T. ignotusKA01
            |           |--T. (Psammoryctes) ochridanus [incl. T. (P.) ochridanus f. variabilis]B50b
            |           `--T. tubifex [=Lumbricus tubifex, Nais tubifex]G20
            |         Rhyacodrilus Bretscher 1901JD86
            |           |--R. amphigenusJD86
            |           |--R. balmensis Juget 1959JD86
            |           |--R. carsticus Kosel 1980JD86
            |           |--R. lindbergi Hrabĕ 1963JD86
            |           |--R. phreaticolaJD86
            |           |--R. sketi Karaman 1974JD86
            |           `--R. subterraneus Hrabĕ 1963JD86
            |         Psammoryctides Hrabĕ 1964JD86
            |           |--P. hadzii Karaman 1974JD86
            |           `--P. hrabei Karaman 1971JD86
            |         Peloscolex Leidy 1851JD86
            |           |--P. arganoi Pop 1974JD86
            |           |--P. boitanii Pop 1974JD86
            |           |--P. cottarellii Pop 1974JD86
            |           |--P. feroxB50b
            |           |--P. latensJD86
            |           |--P. pescei Dumnicka 1981JD86
            |           |--P. stankovici [incl. P. stankovicia f. littoralis, P. stankovicia f. sublittoralis]B50b
            |           |--P. tenuisB50b
            |           `--P. velutinusB50b
            |         Haber Holmquist 1978JD86
            |           |--H. monfalconensis Hrabĕ 1966JD86
            |           |--H. turquini Juget & Lafont 1979JD86
            |           `--H. zavreli Hrabĕ 1942JD86
            |         Potamothrix Vejdovsky & Mrazek 1902JD86
            |           |--P. moldaviensisJD86
            |           |    |--P. m. moldaviensisJD86
            |           |    `--P. m. minimus Pop 1971JD86
            |           `--P. postojnae Karaman 1974JD86
            |         Epirodrilus Hrabĕ 1930JD86
            |           `--E. slovenicus Karaman 1976JD86
            |         Spirospermoides Dumnicka 1983JD86
            |           `--*S. stocki Dumnicka 1983JD86
            |         Krenedrilus Dumnicka 1983JD86
            |           `--*K. papillatus Dumnicka 1983JD86
            |         MarcusaedrilusP86
            |         Smithsonidrilus hummelinckiJD12
            |         ClitellioM07
            |           |--C. abjornseni Michaelsen 1907M07
            |           `--C. arenariusM07
            |         Macquaridrilus bennettaeJ88
            |         Limnodrilus hoffmeisteriS30, KA01
            |         HeronidrilusJD12
            |           |--H. gravidus Erséus 1990RP07
            |           `--H. heronaeJD12
            |         Heterochaeta costata Claparède 1863RP07
            |         TubificoidesRP07
            |           |--T. amplivasatus (Erséus 1975)RP07
            |           |--T. benediiHF98
            |           `--T. bermudaeJD12
            |         Pronaidites Kušta 1888H62
            |           `--*P. carbonarius Kušta 1888H62
            |         RhizodrilusM07
            |           |--R. lacteusM07
            |           |--R. limosusM07
            |           `--R. pilosusM07
            |         LycodrilusM07
            |         IlyodrilusB50b
            |           |--I. hammonensisB50b
            |           |--I. isochaetusB50b
            |           |--I. ochridanusB50b
            |           |--I. prespaensisB50b
            |           `--I. templetoniKA01
            |         HeterodrilusJD12
            |           |--H. decipiensJD12
            |           `--H. devexus Erséus 1997BS17
            |         NaisJD12
            |           |--N. communisPH10
            |           |--N. elinguis Müller 1774R74
            |           |--N. obtusa (Gervaise 1838)R74
            |           |--N. simplexVD-VW14
            |           |--N. variabilisPH10
            |           `--N. vermicularisG20
            |         StylariaD01
            |           |--S. lacustrisD01
            |           `--S. proboscidea [=Nais proboscidea]G20
            |         DeroJ31
            |           |--D. digitata [=Nais digitata]G20
            |           |--D. furcataN21
            |           |--D. lutzi (Michaelsen 1926) [=Schmardaella lutzi; incl. S. hylae Goodchild 1951]R72
            |           |--D. niveaPH10
            |           |--D. pectinataPH10
            |           |--D. roseola Nicholls 1921J31
            |           |--D. sawayaiPH10
            |           `--D. vaga [=Aulophorus vagus]N21
            |         PristinaJD86
            |           |--P. aequisetaPH10
            |           |--P. longiseta Ehrenberg 1831 [incl. P. leidyi Frank Smith 1896]M07
            |           |--P. minuta (Stephenson 1914) [=Naidium minutum]R73
            |           |--P. nunezi Botea 1983JD86
            |           |--P. orghidani Botea 1983JD86
            |           |--P. osborni (Walton 1906)R73
            |           |--P. simaPH10
            |           |--P. subanillica Botea 1983JD86
            |           `--P. vinai Botea 1983JD86
            |         Uncinais uncinataKD02
            |         AinudrilusPH10
            |         BranchiuraPH10
            |           |--B. pleurothecaED08
            |           `--B. sowerbyiKA01
            |         AllonaisPH10
            |           |--A. paraguayensisPH10
            |           |--A. pectinataPH10
            |           `--A. ranauanaPH10
            |         Bratislavia unidentataPH10
            |         ChaetogasterPH10
            |           |--C. diastrophusPH10
            |           `--C. limnaeiM47
            |         Pectinodrilus molestusJD12
            |         Bothrioneurum vejdovskyJD12
            |         Haemonais laurentii Stephenson 1916R74
            |--PhallodrilinaeP86
            `--AulodrilinaeP86
                 |--KaketioP86
                 |--Thalassodrilides gurwitschiP86, JD12
                 |--Limnodriloides Pierantoni 1904P86
                 |    `--L. winckelmanni Michaelsen 1914P86
                 `--AulodrilusPH10
                      |--A. piguetiPH10
                      `--A. pluriseta (Piguet 1906)R74

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B50a] Brooks, J. L. 1950a. Speciation in ancient lakes. Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 30–60.

[B50b] Brooks, J. L. 1950b. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[BS17] Bryce, C., & A. Sampey. 2017. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: additional phyla (Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Sipuncula, Cnidaria and Chordata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 345–361.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D90] Dash, M. C. 1990. Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 311–340. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[ED08] Edgeworth David, T. W. 1908. Geological notes on Kosciusko, with special reference to evidences of glacial action. Part II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 657–668, pl. 623.

[G09a] Goddard, E. J. 1909a. Contribution to a further knowledge of Australasian Oligochaeta. Part I. Descriptions of two species of a new genus of Phreodrilidae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 768–793, pls 29–31.

[G09b] Goddard, E. J. 1909b. Contribution to a further knowledge of Australian Oligochaeta. Part II. Description of a Tasmanian phreodrilid. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 845–853.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HF98] Hall, J. A., & C. L. J. Frid. 1998. Colonisation patterns of adult macrobenthos in a polluted north sea estuary. Aquatic Ecology 33: 333–340.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J31] Jackson, A. 1931. The Oligochaeta of south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 17: 71–136.

[JD12] James, S. W., & S. K. Davidson. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of earthworms (Annelida: Crassiclitellata) based on 28S, 18S and 16S gene sequences. Invertebrate Systematics 26: 213–229.

[J88] Jamieson, B. G. M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics 4: 367–402.

[JD86] Juget, J., & E. Dumnicka. 1986. Oligochaeta (incl. Aphanoneura) des eaux souterraines continentales. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 234–244. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KA01] Kent, M. L., K. B. Andree, J. L. Bartholomew, M. El-Matbouli, S. S. Desser, R. H. Devlin, S. W. Feist, R. P. Hedrick, R. W. Hoffmann, J. Khattra, S. L. Hallett, R. J. G. Lester, M. Longshaw, O. Palenzuela, M. E. Siddall & C. Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48: 395–413.

[KD02] Koprivnikar, J., & S. S. Desser. 2002. A new form of raabeia-type actinosporean (Myxozoa) from the oligochaete Uncinais uncinata. Folia Parasitologica 49: 89–92.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[M07] Michaelsen, W. 1907. Oligochaeta. Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens 1 (2): 115–232, 2 pls.

[N21] Nicholls, G. E. 1921. On a new species of naidiform worm, Dero roseola. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 7: 90–94.

[P86] Pfannkuche, O. 1986. Oligochaeta from marine and brackish-water subterranean habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 245–249. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[P08] Pinder, A. M. 2008. Phreodrilidae (Clitellata: Annelida) in north-western Australia with descriptions of two new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 459–468.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[R72] Righi, G. 1972. Contribuição ao conhecimento dos Oligochaeta brasileiros. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 25 (18): 149–166.

[R73] Righi, G. 1973. On Pristina minuta (Oligochaeta, Naidipae) from Brazilian soil and its epizoic Rhabdostyla pristinis, sp. n. (Ciliata, Epistylidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 191 (5–6): 295–299.

[R74] Righi, G. 1974. Alguns Sporozoa (Gregarinida e Haplosporida) de Oligochaeta (Naididae e Enchytraeidae) brasileiros. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 28 (11): 185–195.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S30] Stephenson, J. 1930. Oligochaeta collected by Dr. G. S. Carter and Mr. L. C. Beadle on the expedition to Brazil and Paraguay in 1926–27. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 19–20.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[VD-VW14] Vossbrinck, C. R., B. A. Debrunner-Vossbrinck & L. M. Weiss. 2014. Phylogeny of the Microsporidia. In: L. M. Weiss, & J. J. Becnel (eds) Microsporidia: Pathogens of Opportunity pp. 203–220. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[WPB98] Winnepenninckx, B. M. H., Y. V. de Peer & T. Backeljau. 1998. Metazoan relationships on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences: a few years later… American Zoologist 38: 888–906.

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