External and sectional views of Miliammina earlandi, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Ammodiscana, Spirillinana, Miliamminana, Endothyroida, Cornuspirida, Nubeculariida, Miliolina.

The Miliolida are a group of Foraminifera with a test that is most commonly calcareous and porcelaneous in appearance, though a minority of genera have an agglutinated or siliceous test (Pawlowski et al. 2013).

The Spirillinida are a lineage of Foraminifera with a test formed primarily from an enrolled tube; the test is agglutinated in Ammodiscidae, but composed of calcite in other families (Pawlowski et al. 2013). The tubular section after the proloculus is often undivided, but becomes divided by septa in latter stages in the more derived Patellinidae (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b). Members of the Ammodiscidae are divided between the free-living Ammodiscinae and the substrate-attached Tolypammininae (Loeblich & Tappan 1964a).

    |--Spirillinida [Spirillinacea, Spirillinata]PHT13
    |    |--AmmodiscanaM13
    |    `--SpirillinanaM13
    `--Miliolida (see below for synonymy)PHT13
         |  i. s.: Miliammellus Saidova & BurmistrovaPHT13, HW93 [Silicoloculinida, Silicoloculinidae, Silicoloculinina]
         |         Falsagglutinella Loeblich & Tappan 1994M13
              |  i. s.: MilioliporidaeM13
              |           |--Orthotrinacria Zaninetti et al. 1985HW93
              |           |--Miliolipora Brönnimann & Zaninetti 1971HW93
              |           |--Galeanella Kristan 1958HW93 (see below for synonymy)
              |           |    `--*G. tollmanni (Kristan 1957) [=*Galea tollmanni]LT64a
              |           `--Cucurbita Jablonsky 1973HW93
              |                `--*C. infundibuliforme Jablonsky 1973H75
              |         Pyrenina [Pyreninidae]M13
              |         NezzazatidaeM13
              |           |--NezzazatinaeM13
              |           |    |--TrochospiraM13
              |           |    |--Nezzazatinella Darmoian 1976M13, HW93
              |           |    `--Nezzazata Omara 1956 [incl. Begia Smout 1956]LT64a
              |           |         |--*N. simplex Omara 1956LT64a
              |           |         `--N. gyra (Smout 1956) [=*Begia gyra]LT64a
              |           `--CoxitinaeM13
              |                |--Antalyna Farinacci & Köylüoglu 1985M13, HW93
              |                |--Coxites Smout 1956LT64a
              |                |    `--*C. zubairensis Smout 1956LT64a
              |                `--Rabanitina Smout 1956M13, LT64a
              |                     `--*R. basraensis Smout 1956LT64a
                   |--Costiferidae [Costiferida, Costiferoida]M13
                   |    |--NubeculariidaM13
                   |    `--MiliolinaM13
                   `--Squamulinidae [Squamulinacea, Squamulinida, Squamulinidea, Squamulinoida]M13
                        |--Brasiliella Troelson 1978HW93 [BrasiliellinaeM13]
                        `--Squamulina Schultze 1854C40 [=Arsquamulum Rhumbler 1913LT64a; Squamulininae]
                             `--*S. laevis Schultze 1854LT64a

Galeanella Kristan 1958HW93 [=Galea Kristan 1957 nec Meuschen 1787 nec Smith 1817 nec Meyen 1833 nec Moerch 1852LT64]

Miliolida [Alveolinidea, Cornuspiridea, Cornuspiroidea, Flexostili, Imperforida, Miliolacea, Miliolata, Miliolicea, Miliolidaceae, Miliolidea, Orbitolitacea, Porcellanea]PHT13

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

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