Medusa of Euphysa aurata, from Russ Hopcroft.

Belongs within: Capitata.
Contains: Corynoidea, Tubulariidae.

The Tubulariida are a group of hydroids characterised by the tendency for the oral whorl(s) of tentacles to become emphasised over the aboral tentacles. The majority (at least) of tubulariidans may form a clade Aplanulata, characterised by the absence of a ciliated planula larva (Daly et al. 2007).

Characters (from Petersen 1979): Aboral tentacles present or reduced; oral tentacles present as single whorl, several closely set whorls, or spreading down over the hydranth body. Desmoneme and stenotele nematocysts always present.

    |--Tricylusa [Tricyclusidae, Tricyclusoidea]P79
    |    `--T. singularis (Schulze 1876)P79
         |  i. s.: Hydrina [Hydrida]CS-P86
         |           |--ProtohydraCS-P86 [ProtohydridaeDB07]
         |           |    `--P. leuckartiCS-P86
         |           `--Hydra Linnaeus 1758L58 [HydridaeDB07]
         |                |--H. articulata Bosc 1797B97
         |                |--H. attenuataER98
         |                |--H. berberina Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. campanulata Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. circumcinctaLS09
         |                |--H. convallaria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. corynaria Bosc 1797B97
         |                |--H. crataegaria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. fuscaD01
         |                |--H. littoralisC-SC03
         |                |--H. lutescens Bosc 1797B97
         |                |--H. magnipapillataMG-F02
         |                |--H. oligactisAB94
         |                |--H. opercularia Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. pelagica Bosc 1797B97
         |                |--H. polypus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. pyraria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. quinternana Bosc 1797B97
         |                |--H. socialis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. stentoria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. umbellaria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--H. viridisAS12
         |                `--H. vulgarisDPH05
         |    |--Acauloides Bouillon 1965 [Acaulidae]CS-P86
         |    |    `--A. ammisatum Bouillon 1965CS-P86
         |    `--CandelabridaeP79
         |         |--Monocoryne gigantea (Bonnevie 1898)P79
         |         `--Candelabrum de Blainville 1830P79
         |              `--C. cocksiiLS09
              |  i. s.: BoreohydridaeCS-P86
              |           |--Psammohydra Schulz 1950CS-P86
              |           |    `--P. nanna Schulz 1950CS-P86
              |           |--Meiorhopalon Salvini-Plawen 1984CS-P86
              |           |    `--M. arenicolum Salvini-Plawen 1984CS-P86
              |           `--Siphonohydra Salvini-Plawen 1966CS-P86
              |                `--S. adriatica Salvini-Plawen 1966CS-P86
              |    |--Monocaulus pendulusH04
              |    |--Corymorpha nutansH04
              |    `--Euphysa Forbes 1848 [Euphysidae]CS-P86
              |         |--E. aurata Forbes 1848P79
              |         |--E. farcta (Miles 1937)P79
              |         `--E. ruthae Norenburg & Morse 1983CS-P86
                       |    |--Pelagohydra Dendy 1902P79
                       |    `--Margelopsis Hartlaub 1897P79
                       |         `--M. australisPO99
                          `--Paracoryne [Paracorynidae]P79
                               `--P. huvei Picard 1957P79
Tubulariida incertae sedis:
  Hypolytus Murbach 1899P79
  Codonium codonophorumH04
    |--T. coronataH04
    `--T. spectabilisA64
  Tubuletta splendidaH04
    |--M. arcticaA64
    `--M. phrygiaH04
  Pennaria Goldfuss 1820A64, G20
    |--P. cavoliniA64
    |--P. gibbosaA64
    |--P. parasiticaG20
    `--P. tiarellaA64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[AB94] Alberts, B., D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts & J. D. Watson. 1994. Molecular Biology of the Cell 3rd ed. Garland Publishing, Inc.: New York.

[A64] Allman, G. J. 1864. Report on the present state of our knowledge of the reproductive system in the Hydroida. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 351–426.

[B97] Bosc, C. 1797. Description des objets nouveaux d’histoire naturelle, trouvés dans une traversée de Bordeaux à Charles-Town. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (2): 9–10.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916–935.

[ER98] Erber, A., D. Riemer, M. Bovenschulte & K. Weber. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins. Journal of Molecular Evolution 47: 751–762.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[LS09] Leclère, L., P. Schuchert, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux & M. Manuel. 2009. Molecular phylogenetics of Thecata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) reveals long-term maintenance of life history traits despite high frequency of recent character changes. Systematic Biology 58 (5): 509–526.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-F02] Minguillón, C., & J. Garcia-Fernàndez. 2002. The single amphioxus Mox gene: insights into the functional evolution of Mox genes, somites, and the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis. Developmental Biology 246: 455–465.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

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