Vasum ceramicum, photographed by Frédéric Ducarme.

Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Volutomitridae, Columbariidae, Ptychatractidae, Costellariidae.

The Turbinelloidea are a clade of neogastropods supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis. The Turbinellidae, chank and vase shells, are generally large gastropods with a thick, spindle-shaped shell (the largest known gastropod, Syrinx aruanus, belongs to this family). They possess a long, thin proboscis that folds into a non-evaginable proboscis sheath (Harasewych & Petit 1989).

Turbinelloidea BR17
    |–+–Volutomitridae FP15
    |  `–+–Columbariidae FP15
    |     `–+–Ptychatractidae FP15
    |        `–Costellariidae FP15
    `–Turbinellidae [Vasidae] FP15
         |  i. s.: Tudivasum MG-H11
         |           |–T. inermis (Angas 1878) MG-H11
         |           `–T. spinosa (Adams & Adams 1863) MG-H11
         |         Surculina Dall 1908 BK11, P66 [incl. Phenacoptygma Dall 1918 O27]
         |           |–*S. blanda (Dall 1908) [=Daphnella (*Surculina) blanda] P66
         |           `–S. cortezi (Dall 1908) P66 [=Daphnella (Surculina) cortezi P66, *Phenacoptygma cortezi O27]
         |–Tudicula Adams & Adams 1864 ES88 [=Tudicla Röding 1798 BR05; Tudiclidae, Tudiclinae BR05, Tudiculinae]
         |    |–*T. spirillus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Murex spirillus] BR17
         |    |–T. armigera Adams 1855 WG71
         |    |–T. inermis Angas 1878 WG71
         |    |–‘Tudicla’ monheimi (Müller 1851) TTE93
         |    |–T. rasilistoma Abbott 1959 ES88
         |    |–T. spinosa Adams & Adams 1863 WG71
         |    `–T. zanzibarica Abbott 1958 ES88
         |–Vasum Röding 1798 ES88 [=Cynodonta Schumacher 1817 BR05; Cynodontidae, Cynodontinae, Vasinae ES88]
         |    |  i. s.: V. cassiforme (Kiener 1840) ES88
         |    |         V. crosseanum (Souverbie 1875) ES88
         |    |         V. floridanum McGinty 1940 P89
         |    |         V. globulum (Lamarck 1816) [incl. V. globulum antiguensis Usticke 1969] BC01
         |    |         V. humerosum Vaughan 1896 DK10
         |    |         V. lactisfloris Ferrario 1983 BC01
         |    |         V. rhinoceros (Gmelin 1791) ES88
         |    |         V. stephanti Emerson & Sage 1988 ES88
         |    |         V. tubiferum (Anton 1839) ES88
         |    |         V. turbinellus (Linnaeus 1758) ES88 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |–*V. (Vasum) ceramicum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex ceramicus, *Cynodonta ceramica] BR17
         |    `–V. (Altivasum Hedley 1914) DK10, WG71
         |         `–V. (A.) flindersi Verco 1914 DK10, WG71
         `–Turbinellinae [Xancidae, Xancinae] HP89
              |–Syrinx Röding 1798 HP89
              |    `–*S. aruanus (Linnaeus 1758) HP89 (see below for synonymy)
              |–Scolymus Swainson 1835 [Scolyminae] BR17
              |    `–‘Turbinella’ angulata (Lightfoot 1786) (see below for synonymy) BR17
              `–Xancus Röding 1798 BR05 [=Turbinella Lamarck 1799 BR05; incl. Buccinella Perry 1811 PH90]
                   |–*X. pyrum (Linnaeus 1767) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                   |–‘Turbinellus’ acuminatus C64
                   |–‘Cancellaria’ alabamensis Gabb 1860 [=Turbinella alabamensis] PH90
                   |–‘Turbinella’ caestus C64
                   |–‘Turbenella’ ceratus C64
                   |–‘Turbinellus’ infundibulum [=Murex infundibulum; incl. T. filosus, T. gibbulus] G79
                   |–‘Turbinella’ iricolor Hombr. & Jacquinot 1853 H09
                   |–‘Turbinellus’ nassa [incl. T. brasilianus, T. cingulifera, Murex knorri, T. knorri, T. rudis] G79
                   |–‘Turbinella’ scolymoides Dall 1890 P89
                   `–‘Turbinella’ subnassatula Souverbie 1872 H09

*Syrinx aruanus (Linnaeus 1758) HP89 [=Murex aruanus HP89, Busycon aruanus HP89, Fulgur aruanus HP89, Megalatractus aruanus WG71; incl. Fusus proboscidiferus Lamarck 1816 HP89, Me. proboscidiferus HP89]

‘Turbinella’ angulata (Lightfoot 1786) [incl. T. umbilicaris Lamarck 1816, *Scolymus umbilicaris] BR17

Vasum turbinellus (Linnaeus 1758) ES88 [=Voluta turbinella H09; incl. Turbinella cornigera Lamarck 1822 BR17, *Scolymus cornigerus BR17, Vasum turbinellus var. cornigerum SP72]

*Xancus pyrum (Linnaeus 1767) BR17 [=Voluta pyrum BR17, Murex (*Turbinella) pyrum non M. pyrum Linnaeus 1758 G20, BR17; incl. *Buccinella caerulea Perry 1811 PH90]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HP89] Harasewych, M. G., & R. E. Petit. 1989. The nomenclatural status and phylogenetic affinities of Syrinx aruanus Linné, 1758 (Prosobranchia: Turbinellidae). Nautilus 103 (2): 83–84.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P89] Petuch, E. J. 1989. New species of Malea (Gastropoda: Tonnidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Florida. Nautilus 103 (3): 92–95.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: An evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[SP72] Smythe, K. R., & W. W. A. Phillips. 1972. Some observations on the fauna of the Maldive Islands (Indian Ocean) part VIII. Marine shells. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 290–296.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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