Turbininae

 Horned turban Turbo cornutus, copyright Kwansei Shell Database.

Belongs within: Vetigastropoda.
Contains: Bolma (Bolma), Turbo (Marmarostoma).

The Turbininae are marine gastropods with strong, solid shells bearing a calcareous operculum; whorls may be rounded or more or less carinate. Members of the genus Turbo have shells with rounded whorls, a convex base, rounded aperture and near-circular, outwardly convex operculum (Knight et al. 1960). A group of genera with peripheral spines on a more or less distinct angulation of the whorls, and often an oval operculum, has sometimes been recognised as a distinct subfamily Astraeinae (Beu & Ponder 1979).

<==Turbininae [Astraeinae, Astraliinae, Bolmidae]
    |--Rothpletzella Böhm 1895KC60
    |    `--R. infracarinata (Kittl 1894) [=Coelocentrus infracarinatus; incl. *R. richthofeni Böhm 1895]KC60
    |--Coelobolma Cossmann 1918KC60
    |    `--*C. corbarica Cossmann 1918KC60
    |--Tectariopsis Cossmann 1888KC60
    |    `--*T. henrici (Caillat 1835) [=Turbo henrici]KC60
    |--Lithopoma Gray 1850BP79
    |    `--*L. tuber (Linné 1767)BP79 [=Trochus tuberBP79, Astraea (*Lithopoma) tuberKC60]
    |--Megastraea McLean 1970BP79
    |    `--*M. undosa (Wood 1828)BP79 [=Trochus undosusBP79; incl. T. balaenarumC64, T. gigasC64, T. undatus (n. n.)C64]
    |--Pomaulax Gray 1850BP79
    |    |--*P. japonicus (Dunker 1845)BP79 [=Trochus japonicusBP79, Astraea (*Pomaulax) japonicusKC60]
    |    `--P. undosa (Wood 1828)O27 [=Astraea undosaO27, Imperator undosaF27a; incl. Turbo rutilusC64]
    |--Cookia Lesson 1832 [=Tubicanthus Swainson 1840]KC60
    |    `--*C. sulcata (Martyn 1784)BP79 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--C. s. sulcataF27a
    |         `--C. s. kielmansegi (Zelebor 1866) (see below for synonymy)F27a
    |--Senectus Swainson 1840 [Senectinae]BR05
    |    |--*S. spenglerianus (Gmelin 1791) [=Turbo spenglerianus]BR17
    |    |--S. funiculatus [incl. Callopoma depressum]C64
    |    |--S. radiataF66
    |    `--S. squamigerusC64
    |--Uvanilla Gray 1850BP79
    |    |--*U. unguis (Wood 1828) [=Trochus unguis, Astraea (*Uvanilla) unguis]KC60
    |    |--U. buschii [=Turbo buschii]C64
    |    |--U. inermisC64
    |    `--U. olivaceaC64
    |--Guildfordia Gray 1850KC60
    |    |  i. s.: G. yoka Jousseaume 1888W93
    |    |--G. (Guildfordia)BP79
    |    |    |--*G. (G.) triumphans (Philippi 1841)KC60 [=Astralium triumphansKC60, Calcar triumphansH04]
    |    |    `--G. (G.) monilifera (Hedley & Willey 1896) [=Astralium (G.) moniliferum]BP79
    |    |--G. (Fractopella Beu 1970)BP79
    |    |    `--G. (*F.) megapex (Beu 1970) [=*Fractopella megapex]BP79
    |    `--G. (Opella Finlay 1926)BP79
    |         `--G. (*O.) subfimbriata (Suter 1917) [=Astraea subfimbriata]BP79
    |--Pachypoma Gray 1850BP79
    |    |--*P. caelata (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus caelatus]BP79
    |    |--P. barbarensis (Dall 1919) [=Astraea (Pachypoma) barbarensis]O27
    |    |--P. gibberosum [=Trochus gibberosus, T. gibberosus novae zelandiae Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial)]C64
    |    `--P. inaequalis (Martyn 1784) [=Astraea (Pachypoma) inaequalis]O27
    |         |--P. i. inaequalisO27
    |         |--P. i. montereyensis (Oldroyd 1927) [=Astraea inaequalis montereyensis]O27
    |         |--P. i. pacifica (Dall 1919) [=Astraea inaequalis pacifica]O27
    |         `--‘Astraea’ i. rutilaB56
    |--Astralium Link 1807BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. calcar (Linnaeus 1758)KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. aureus (Jonas 1844)BP79 [=Trochus aureusBP79, Astraea (*Micrastraea) aureaKC60]
    |    |--A. imperialeH04
    |    |--A. kesteveni (Iredale 1924)BP79 [=*Bellastraea kesteveniBP79, Astraea (*Bellastraea) kesteveniKC60]
    |    |--A. nobile Gray 1847H09
    |    |--A. petrosum (Martyn 1787) [=Trochus petrosus]H09
    |    |--A. pileolum (Reeve 1842)W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. rhodostomum (Lamarck 1822)W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. rotularia (Lamarck 1822)W93 [=Trochus rotulariusBP79, Astraea (*Rugastella) rotulariaKC60]
    |    |--A. rutidoloma Tate 1893W93
    |    |--A. squamiferum (Koch 1844) [incl. A. fimbriatum (preoc.)]W93
    |    |--‘Trochus’ stella Lamarck 1822 [=*Stella stella]BP79
    |    |--A. tentoriformis (Jonas 1845)W93 [=Trochus tentoriiformisH09]
    |    `--A. tentorium (Thiele 1930)W93
    |--Astraea Röding 1798BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: A. aspinosa Usticke 1971BC01
    |    |         A. caelataHW78
    |    |         A. longispinaLYR78
    |    |         A. pileola Reeve 1842WG71
    |    |         ‘Imperator’ serratus Carpenter 1864C64
    |    |         A. tectaIZ77
    |    |           |--A. t. tectaIZ77
    |    |           `--A. t. americana (Gmelin 1791)IZ77
    |    |--A. (Astraea)KC60
    |    |    |--A. (A.) heliotropium (Martyn 1784)KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. (A.) bicarinata (Suter 1917) [=Imperator bicarinata]F27a
    |    |    `--A. (A.) hudsoniana (Johnston 1888)BP79 [=Imperator hudsonianaF27a]
    |    `--A. (Vitiastraea Ladd 1966)BP79
    |         `--A. (*V.) holmesi Ladd 1966BP79
    |--Bolma Risso 1826 (see below for synonymy)BP79
    |    |  i. s.: B. belgica Glibert 1952BP79
    |    |         B. borsoni (Michelotti 1847)BP79
    |    |         B. carinata [=Ormastralium carinatum; incl. O. carinatum var. prohenica Sacco 1896]BP79
    |    |         B. castrocarensis (Foresti 1876) [=Turbo rugosus var. castrocarensis, B. (*Oobolma) castrocarensis]BP79
    |    |         B. fimbriata (Borson 1821)BP79 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         B. granifer (Martin 1883) [=Turbo (Callopoma) granifer]BP79
    |    |         B. granosa (Borson 1821)BP79
    |    |         B. kendengensis (Altena 1938) [=Astralium (Bolma) kendengensis]BP79
    |    |         B. meynardi (Michelotti 1847)BP79
    |    |         B. muricata (Dujardin 1835)BP79
    |    |         B. proborsoni Sacco 1896BP79
    |    |         B. speciosa (Michelotti 1847) (see below for synonymy)BP79
    |    |         B. stearnsi (Ladd 1970) [=Astraea (Bolma) stearnsi]BP79
    |    |         B. subspinosa (Rovereto in Sacco 1896) [=Ormastralium subspinosum]BP79
    |    |         B. takitai (Ozaki 1954) [=Pachypoma takitai]BP79
    |    |         B. taurinensis Sacco 1896BP79
    |    |         B. taurospeciosa (Sacco 1896) [=Ormastralium (Tylastralium) taurospeciosum]BP79
    |    |         ‘Astraea (Incilaster)’ transenna Suter 1917 [=Calcar transenna]F27a
    |    |         B. virgata (Ozaki 1954) [=Astraea virgata]BP79
    |    |--B. (Bolma)BP79
    |    `--B. (Senobolma Okutani 1964)BP79
    |         |--B. (*S.) venusta (Okutani 1964) [=*Senobolma venusta]BP79
    |         `--B. (S.) exotica (Okutani 1969) [=Senobolma exotica]BP79
    `--Turbo Linnaeus 1758DK10 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: T. acutangulus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. annulatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. auriscalpium Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         ‘Astraea’ brasiliensis Ferriera & da Cunha 1957BP79
         |         T. castanea Gmelin 1791 (see below for synonymy)BC01
         |         T. cepoidesF27a
         |         T. cimex Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. cochlus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. concinnus Philippi 1847H09
         |         T. corneus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. crenatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. distortus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. etheridgei Lycett 1857F27b
         |         T. grangensis Pritchard 1909 [=T. hamiltonensis Pritchard 1898 non Harris 1897]F27b
         |         T. jonathani Dekker, Moolenbeek & Dance 1992BC01
         |         T. lacteus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. margaritaceus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. militarisC60
         |         T. muricatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. muscorum Linnaeus 1758L58 [=Bulimus muscorumG40, Jaminia muscorumG40, Odostomia muscorumG40]
         |         T. neritoides Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. obtusatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. pagodus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. personatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. postulatus Bartrum 1919F27a
         |         T. reflexus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. replicatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. rubricinctus Mighels 1845J49
         |         T. saxosusC60 [=Callopoma saxosumC60; incl. Marmorostoma undulataC64]
         |         T. sparverius Gmelin 1791H09
         |         T. stolizkiiH79
         |         T. supragranosus [=Trochus (Gibbula) supragranosus]B79
         |         T. tectumpersicum Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. tenisoni Finlay 1927 [=T. etheridgei Tenison-Woods 1877 non Lycett 1857]F27b
         |         T. ticaonicus Reeve 1842R42
         |         T. tuberG79
         |         T. tumidulus Reeve 1848H09
         |         T. ungulinus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         T. variabilis Reeve 1842R42
         |         T. variegatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--T. (Turbo) petholatus Linnaeus 1758KC60 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. (Barbotella Cossmann 1918)KC60
         |    `--T. (*B.) hoernesi Barbot 1869KC60
         |--T. (Batillus Schumacher 1817) [=Angarina Bayle 1878, Delphinulopsis Wright 1878 non Laube 1868]KC60
         |    `--T. (*B.) cornutus Gmelin 1791 [=*Angarina cornuta, *Delphinulopsis cornutus]KC60
         |--T. (Callopoma Gray 1850)KC60
         |    |--T. (*C.) fluctuosus (Wood 1828)KC60 [=Callopoma fluctuosumC64]
         |    |--T. (C.) fokkesii [=Trochus (Turbo) fokkesii]C64
         |    `--‘Callopoma’ tessellatumC64
         |--T. (Carswellena Iredale 1931)KC60
         |    `--T. (*C.) exquisitus Angas 1877KC60
         |--T. (Dentallopoma Beets 1942)KC60
         |    `--T. (*D.) denticolumellaris Beets 1942KC60
         |--T. (Dinassovica Iredale 1937)WG71
         |    |--T. (D.) jourdani Kiener 1839WG71 [incl. T. verconis Iredale 1937W93, KC60, *Dinassovica verconisKC60]
         |    `--T. (D.) imperialis Gmelin 1791W93
         |--T. (Euninella Cotton 1939)DK10
         |    |--T. (*E.) gruneri Philippi 1846DK10
         |    `--T. (E.) hamiltonensis Harris 1897DK10
         |--T. (Halopsephus Rehder 1943)KC60
         |    `--T. (H.) haraldi Robertson 1958 [=*Halopsephus pulcher Rehder 1943 non Turbo pulcher Reeve 1842]KC60
         |--T. (Lunatica Röding 1798) [incl. Olearia Klein ex Herrmannsen 1847 non Moench 1802 (ICBN)]KC60
         |    `--T. (L.) marmoratus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. T. olearius Linnaeus 1758, *Lunatica olearia]KC60
         |--T. (Lunella Röding 1798)W93 [=Ocana Adams 1861KC60]
         |    |--T. (L.) cinereus Born 1778W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--‘Lunella’ reclusaF66
         |    |--T. (L.) smaragdus (Gmelin 1791)F27a, P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--‘Lunella’ undulataB97
         |--T. (Marmarostoma)WG71
         |--T. (Modelia Gray 1840)BP79, P61
         |    `--T. (*M.) granosus Martyn 1784BP79, P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. (Monodon) pharaonisG20
         |--T. (Ninella Gray 1850)BP79, KC60
         |    `--T. (*N.) torquatus Gmelin 1791BP79, WG71 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. (Sarmaticus Gray 1847) [incl. Cidaris Swainson 1840 non Leske 1778]KC60
         |    `--T. (*S.) sarmaticus Linnaeus 1758KC60
         |--T. (Sarmaturbo Powell 1938)KC60
         |    `--T. (*S.) superbus Zittel 1864KC60
         |--T. (Subninella Thiele 1929)BP79, KC60
         |    `--T. (*S.) undulatus Solander 1786BP79, WG71 (see below for synonymy)
         `--T. (Taeniaturbo Woodring 1928)KC60
              `--T. (*T.) canaliculatus Hermann 1781KC60

Astraea Röding 1798BR05 [=Canthorbis Swainson 1840KC60, Imperator Montfort 1810KC60, Macropelmus Gistel 1848 non Dejean 1821KC60; Imperatorina, Imperatorinae]

Astraea (Astraea) heliotropium (Martyn 1784)KC60 [=Trochus heliotropiumP61, *Imperator heliotropiaF27a; incl. Trochus imperialis Gmelin 1791KC60, *Astraea imperialisP61, *Canthorbis imperialisKC60, *Imperator imperialisBR17, *Macropelmus imperialisKC60, Liotia solitaria Suter 1908F27a, Angaria solitariaF27a]

Astralium Link 1807BR05 [incl. Bellastraea Iredale 1924BP79, Calcar Montfort 1810KC60, Cyclocantha Swainson 1840KC60, Distellifer Iredale 1937BP79, Micrastraea Cotton 1939BP79, Pagocalcar Iredale 1937BP79, Rugastella Iredale 1937BP79, Stella Herrmannsen 1849 non Medik. 1787 (ICBN)KC60]

Astralium calcar (Linnaeus 1758)KC60 [=Turbo calcarKC60, Astraea (Astralium) calcarKC60, *Calcar calcarW93, *Cyclocantha calcarBP79; incl. *Astralium deplanatum Link 1807BP79, *Calcar sporio Montfort 1810BP79]

Astralium pileolum (Reeve 1842)W93 [=Trochus pileolumBP79, *Pagocalcar pileolumBP79; incl. Astralium cucculatus Kiener 1850W93, Trochus limbiferus Kiener 1850BP79, Astraea (Pagocalcar) limbiferaKC60]

Astralium rhodostomum (Lamarck 1822)W93 [=Trochus rhodostomusBP79; incl. *Distellifer wallisi Iredale 1937BP79, Astraea (*Distellifer) wallisiKC60]

Bolma Risso 1826 [=Bolina (l. c.) non Rafinesque 1815; incl. Oobolma Sacco 1896, Ormastralium Sacco 1896, Tylastralium Sacco 1896]BP79

Bolma fimbriata (Borson 1821)BP79 [=Trochus fimbriatusBP79, Astraea (*Ormastralium) fimbriataKC60, *Ormastralium fimbriatumBP79]

Bolma speciosa (Michelotti 1847) [=Turbo speciosa, Ormastralium (Tylastralium) speciosum, Turbo michelotti Cossmann 1918, *Tylastralium michelotti]BP79

*Cookia sulcata (Martyn 1784)BP79 [=Trochus sulcatusBP79, Astraea (*Cookia) sulcataKC60, Lithopoma (*C.) sulcataBP79, Turbo sulcatusP61, *Tubicanthus sulcatusKC60]

Cookia sulcata kielmansegi (Zelebor 1866) [=Risella kielmansegi; incl. Astrea sulcata davisii Stowe 1872, Astralium pyramidale Webster 1905]F27a

Turbo Linnaeus 1758DK10 [=Laeviturbo Cossmann 1918KC60, TurbonusBR05; incl. Amphiboliturbo Magne 1940KC60, Neocollonia Kuroda & Habe 1954KC60]

Turbo castanea Gmelin 1791 [incl. T. castaneus muricatus Usticke 1959 non T. muricatus Linnaeus 1758 L58, T. castaneus versicolor Usticke 1959 non T. versicolor Gmelin 1791]BC01

Turbo (Lunella) cinereus Born 1778W93 [=Lunella cinereaKC60; incl. T. lugubris Reeve 1848W93, T. mespilus Gmelin 1791W93, T. picta Röding 1798W93, T. porcatus Reeve 1848W93, T. porphyrites Gmelin 1791W93, Helix porphyritesH09, T. versicolor Gmelin 1791KC60, *Lunella versicolorKC60, *Ocana versicolorKC60]

Turbo (Lunella) smaragdus (Gmelin 1791)F27a, P61 [=Helix smaragdusF27a, Lunella smaragdaP61; incl. Turbo (Lunella) radina Webster 1905F27a]

Turbo (*Modelia) granosus Martyn 1784BP79, P61 [=*Modelia granosaP61, Trochus granosusF27a; incl. Pseudoliotia imperforata Suter 1908F27a, Collonista imperforataF27a, Leptothyra imperforataF27a, Liotia (Arene) shandi Suter 1908F27a]

Turbo (*Ninella) torquatus Gmelin 1791BP79, WG71 [=*Ninella torquataWG71; incl. T. stamineus (nom. inv.)W93, N. stramineaB97, N. whitleyi Iredale 1949WG71]

Turbo (*Subninella) undulatus Solander 1786BP79, WG71 [=Limax undulatusH09, *Subninella undulataWG71; incl. Turbo anguis Gmelin 1791W93, T. simsoniP79]

*Turbo (Turbo) petholatus Linnaeus 1758KC60 [=*Laeviturbo petholatusKC60; incl. T. petholatus var. humerosus Smith 1907BC01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BP79] Beu, A. G., & W. F. Ponder. 1979. A revision of the species of Bolma Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae). Records of the Australian Museum 32 (1): 1–68.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B79] Brazier, J. 1879. List of marine shells collected on Fitzroy Island, north coast of Australia; with notes on their geographical range. Journal of Conchology 2: 186–199.

[B97] Brazier, J. 1897. Note on the shells found in kitchen middens at Bondi Bay. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (4): 817–818.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to sympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[IZ77] Ingham, R. E., & J. A. Zischke. 1977. Prey preferences of carnivorous intertidal snails in the Florida Keys. Veliger 20 (1): 49–51.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LYR78] Linsley, R. M., E. L. Yochelson & D. M. Rohr. 1978. A reinterpretation of the mode of life of some Paleozoic frilled gastropods. Lethaia 11: 105–112.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. Critical remarks on the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods’ “Census of Tasmanian shells”. Journal of Conchology 2: 353–354.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R42] Reeve, L. 1842. Descriptions of new species of shells belonging to the genera Trochus and Turbo. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 184–186.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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