Turdidae

 Hermit thrush Catharus guttatus, photographed by Daniel Berganza.

Belongs within: Muscicapida.
Contains: Myadestes, Catharus, Zoothera, Turdus.

The Turdinae contains the thrushes, medium-sized passerine birds with unscaled tarsi (Austin 1961). Most thrushes are fairly dull-coloured, but are often notable singers. Past authors have also included the chats, robins and related birds in the Turdinae, but those species are now regarded as more closely related to the Muscicapinae.

<==Turdidae [Turdinae, Turdinia]
    |--+--+--Grandala Hodgson 1843JF06, B94 [Grandalinae]
    |  |  |    `--G. coelicolorJF06
    |  |  `--Sialia Swainson 1827JT12, B94 [Sialiinae]
    |  |       |--S. mexicanaBKB15
    |  |       `--+--S. currucoidesBKB15
    |  |          `--S. sialisBKB15
    |  `--+--MyadestesJT12
    |     `--Neocossyphus Fischer & Reichenow 1884JT12, B94 [Neocossyphinae]
    |          |--+--N. finschiiBKB15 [=Stizorhina finschiJT12]
    |          |  `--N. fraseriBKB15 [=Stizorhina fraseriJT12]
    |          `--+--N. poensisBKB15
    |             `--N. rufusBKB15
    |                  |--N. r. rufusPB27
    |                  `--N. r. gabunensisPB27
    `--+--+--IxoreusJF06
       |  |    |--I. naeviusJF06 [=Zoothera naeviaJT12]
       |  |    `--I. variusWM01
       |  `--+--+--Cichlopsis leucogenysJT12
       |     |  `--EntomodestesJT12
       |     |       |--E. coracinusJF06
       |     |       `--E. leucotisJF06
       |     `--+--CatharusJF06
       |        `--+--Ridgwayia pinicola [=Zoothera pinicola]JF06
       |           `--Hylocichla Baird 1864JF06, S05
       |                |--*H. mustelinaFP64 [=Catharus mustelinusJF06, Turdus mustelinusFP64]
       |                |--H. aliciae (Baird 1858) (see below for synonymy)S05
       |                |--H. fuscescensS18
       |                `--H. ustulataG68
       |                     |--H. u. ustulataS18
       |                     `--H. u. swainsoniiS18
       `--+--+--ZootheraJT12
          |  `--+--Chlamydochaera jefferyi Sharpe 1887JT12, L03
          |     `--Cochoa Hodgson 1836JT12, B94 [Cochoaninae, Cochoinae]
          |          |--C. azureaJT12
          |          |--C. beccariiJT12
          |          |--C. purpureaJT12
          |          `--C. viridisJF06
          `--+--TurdusJT12
             `--+--‘Zoothera’ sibiricaBKB15 [=Turdus sibiricusT89]
                `--+--‘Zoothera’ wardiiBKB15
                   `--+--+--‘Zoothera’ guttataBKB15
                      |  `--‘Zoothera’ spilopteraBKB15
                      `--+--+--+--‘Zoothera’ camaronensisBKB15
                         |  |  `--‘Zoothera’ princeiJT12
                         |  `--+--+--‘Zoothera’ crossleyiBKB15
                         |     |  `--‘Zoothera’ gurneyiBKB15
                         |     `--+--‘Zoothera’ oberlaenderiBKB15
                         |        `--+--‘Zoothera’ piaggiaeBKB15
                         |           `--‘Zoothera’ tanganjicaeJT12
                         `--+--‘Zoothera’ citrinaJT12
                            |    |--Z. c. citrinaS02
                            |    |--Z. c. cyanotusS02
                            |    `--Z. c. melliVP89
                            `--+--‘Zoothera’ schistaceaJT12
                               `--+--+--‘Zoothera’ cinereaJT12
                                  |  `--+--‘Zoothera’ erythronotaJT12
                                  |     `--‘Zoothera’ mendeniJT12
                                  `--+--‘Zoothera’ peroniiJT12
                                     `--+--‘Zoothera’ dohertyiJT12
                                        `--‘Zoothera’ interpresJT12
Turdidae incertae sedis:
  KittacinclaA61
    |--K. macroura [=Turdus macrourus]W66
    `--K. malabaricaA61
  PhaeornisFP64
    |--P. obscurusUSDI77
    |    |--P. o. obscurusUSDI77
    |    |--P. o. lanaiensisD81
    |    |--P. o. myadestinaUSDI77
    |    |--P. o. oahensisD81
    |    `--P. o. ruthaUSDI77
    `--P. palmeriUSDI77
  Cataponera turdoidesJT12
  Geomalia heinrichiJT12
  GeocichlaKF-V21
    |--G. dohertyiKF-V21
    |--G. lunulataR87
    |--G. macrorhynchaR87
    `--G. princeiPB27
         |--G. p. princeiPB27
         `--G. p. batesiPB27

Hylocichla aliciae (Baird 1858) [=Turdus aliciae, T. swainsonii var. aliciae, T. ustulatus var. aliciae; incl. T. minor Reinhardt 1853]S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G68] Grant, P. R. 1968. Bill size, body size, and the ecological adaptations of bird species to competitive situations on islands. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 319–333.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KF-V21] Kuhl, H., C. Frankl-Vilches, A. Bakker, G. Mayr, G. Nikolaus, S. T. Boerno, S. Klages, B. Timmermann & M. Gahr. 2021. An unbiased molecular approach using 3′-UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life. Molecular Biology and Evolution 38 (1): 108–127.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. Descriptions of Australian birds’ eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1141–1152, pl. 19.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

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