Protanisoceras nodosum, from Wright et al. (1996).

Belongs within: Stephanocerataceae.
Contains: Baculitidae, Hamites, Nostoceratidae, Diplomoceratidae.

The Turrilitaceae are a Cretaceous (Upper Aptian or Lower Albian to Upper Maastrichtian) assemblage of heteromorph ammonites. Sutures are quadrilobate throughout, generally with bifid lobes though trifid lobes may occur in some early forms (Wright et al. 1996).

<==Turrilitaceae [Diplomocerataceae, Hamitaceae, Turriculacea]
    |  i. s.: Plesiohamites Breistroffer 1947 (n. d.)WCH96
    |           `--*P. multicostatus (Brown 1837) (n. d.) [=Hamites multicostatus]WCH96
    |  `--HamitidaeWCH96
    |       |--HamitesWCH96
    |       |--Scaphamites Wiedmann & Marcinowski 1985WCH96
    |       |    `--*S. passendorferi Wiedmann & Marcinowski 1985WCH96
    |       |--Puebloites Cobban & Scott 1972WCH96
    |       |    `--*P. corrugatus (Stanton 1894) [=Helicoceras corrugatum]WCH96
    |       |--Metaptychoceras Spath 1926WCH96
    |       |    `--*M. smithi (Woods 1896) [=Ptychoceras smithi]WCH96
    |       `--Hemiptychoceras Spath 1925 [incl. Protobaculites Collignon 1964]WCH96
    |            |--*H. gaultinum (Pictet 1847) [=Ptychoceras gaultinum]WCH96
    |            `--‘Baculites (*Protobaculites)’ ambiguus Collignon 1964WCH96
    |--Anisoceratidae [Algeritidae, Phlycticrioceratidae]WCH96
    |    |--Algerites Pervinquière 1910WCH96
    |    |    `--*A. sayni Pervinquière 1910WCH96
    |    |--Rencurelites Thieuloy 1964WCH96
    |    |    `--*R. ambiguum (Thieuloy 1964) [=Protanisoceras (*Rencurelites) ambiguum]WCH96
    |    |--Ephamulina Collignon 1963WCH96
    |    |    `--*E. trituberculatum (Collignon 1949) [=Anisoceras trituberculatum]WCH96
    |    |--Prohelicoceras Spath 1925WCH96
    |    |    `--*P. thurmanni (Pictet & Campiche 1861) [=Helicoceras thurmanni]WCH96
    |    |--Appurdiceras Whitehouse 1926WCH96
    |    |    `--*A. cordycepoides (Etheridge 1905)WCH96 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Prophlycticrioceras Clark 1965WCH96
    |    |    `--*P. tanima (Adkins & Winton 1920) [=Hamites tanima]WCH96
    |    |--Idiohamites Spath 1925WCH96
    |    |    `--*I. tuberculatus (Sowerby 1818) [=Hamites tuberculatus]WCH96
    |    |--Phlycticrioceras Spath 1926WCH96
    |    |    `--P. trinodosus (Geinitz 1850) (see below for synonymy)WCH96
    |    |--‘Anisoceras’ Pictet 1854 non Dejean 1833WCH96
    |    |    |--*A. saussureanum (Pictet 1847) [=Hamites saussureanus]WCH96
    |    |    `--A. raynaudiK81
    |    |--Allocrioceras Spath 1926WCH96
    |    |    |--A. angustum (Sowerby in Dixon 1850) (see below for synonymy)WCH96
    |    |    `--A. woodsi Spath 1939WCH96
    |    |--Metahamites Spath 1930WCH96
    |    |    |--*M. sablieri (Orbigny 1842) [=Hamites sablieri]WCH96
    |    |    |--M. elegansWCH96
    |    |    |--M. gignouxiWCH96
    |    |    `--M. parcetuberculatusP93
    |    `--Protanisoceras Spath 1923WCH96
    |         |--*P. (Protanisoceras) raulinianum (Orbigny 1842) [=Hamites raulinianus]WCH96
    |         |--P. (Heteroclinus Casey 1961)WCH96
    |         |    `--P. (*H.) nodosum (Sowerby 1818) [=Hamites nodosus]WCH96
    |         |--P. (Rossalites Casey 1961)KK08, WCH96
    |         |    `--P. (*R.) superbus Collignon 1949WCH96
    |         `--P. (Torquistylus Casey 1961)WCH96
    |              `--P. (*T.) anglicum (Spath 1939) [=Prohelicoceras anglicum]WCH96
    `--Turrilitidae [Pseudhelicoceratinae, Turrilitinae]EK02
         |--Neostlingoceras Klinger & Kennedy 1978WCH96
         |    `--*N. carcitanense (Matheron 1842) [=Turrilites carcitanensis]WCH96
         |--Raynaudia Dubourdieu 1953WCH96
         |    `--*R. raynaudiensis (Collignon 1932) [=Turrilites (Carthaginites) raynaudiensis]WCH96
         |--Carthaginites Pervinquière 1907WCH96
         |    `--*C. kerimensis (Pervinquière 1907) [=Turrilites (*Carthaginites) kerimensis]WCH96
         |--Mesoturrilites Breistroffer 1953WCH96
         |    `--*M. armalense (Coquand 1862) [=Turrilites aumalensis]WCH96
         |--Proturrilitoides Breistroffer 1940WCH96
         |    `--*P. astierianus (Orbigny 1842) [=Turrilites astierianus]WCH96
         |--Hypoturrilites Dubourdieu 1953 [incl. Eohypoturrilites Scholz 1973]WCH96
         |    |--*H. gravesianus (Orbigny 1842) [=Turrilites gravesianus]WCH96
         |    |--‘Turrilites’ mantelli Sharpe 1857 [=*Eohypoturrilites mantelli]WCH96
         |    `--H. tuberculatusK81
         |--Turrilites Lamarck 1801BR05 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*T. costatus Lamarck 1801WCH96 [=Ammonites (Turrilites) costataG20]
         |    |--T. acutusK79
         |    `--T. scheuchzerianus Bosc 1802 [=*Euturrilites scheuchzerianus, *Turbinites scheuchzerianus]WCH96
         |--Ostlingoceras Hyatt 1900WCH96
         |    |--*O. (Ostlingoceras) puzosianum (Orbigny 1842) [=Turrilites puzosianus]WCH96
         |    `--O. (Parostlingoceras Breistroffer 1953)WCH96
         |         `--O. (*P.) moutonianus (Orbigny 1842) [=Turrilites moutonianus]WCH96
         |--Pseudhelicoceras Spath 1922 (see below for synonymy)WCH96
         |    |--*P. robertianum (Orbigny 1842) [=Turrilites robertianus, *Spiroceras robertianum]WCH96
         |    |--‘Turrilites’ bituberculatus Orbigny 1842 [=*Subhelicoceras bituberculatum]WCH96
         |    |--‘Turrilites’ catenatus Orbigny 1842 [=*Parahelicoceras catenatum]WCH96
         |    `--P. convolutumW69
         |--+--Turrilitoides Spath 1923WCH96
         |  |    |--*T. hugardianus Orbigny 1842WCH96
         |  |    `--T. densicostatusWCH96
         |  `--+--NostoceratidaeWCH96
         |     `--DiplomoceratidaeWCH96
         `--Mariella Nowak 1916 (see below for synonymy)WCH96
              |  i. s.: ‘Turrilites’ elegans Orbigny 1842 [=*Hemiturrilites elegans]WCH96
              |         ‘Turrilites’ gresslyi Pictet & Campiche 1861 [=*Paraturrilites gresslyi]WCH96
              |--*M. (Mariella) bergeri (Brongniart in Cuvier & Brongniart 1822) (see below for synonymy)WCH96
              `--M. (Plesioturrilites Breistroffer 1953) [incl. Wintonia Adkins 1928 non Roewer 1923]WCH96
                   |--M. (*P.) brazoensis (Roemer 1852) [=Turrilites brazoensis, M. (Wintonia) brazoensis]WCH96
                   `--M. (‘Wintonia’) bosquensis (Adkins 1920) (see below for synonymy)WCH96

Allocrioceras angustum (Sowerby in Dixon 1850) [=Hamites angustus; incl. Crioceras ellipticum Woods 1896 non Hamites ellipticus Mantell 1822, *Allocrioceras ellipticum]WCH96

*Appurdiceras cordycepoides (Etheridge 1905)WCH96 [=Ancyloceras cordycepoidesWCH96, Crioceras cordycepoidesF71, Labeceras cordycepoidesF71]

Mariella Nowak 1916 [=Bergericeras Wiedmann 1962; incl. Hemiturrilites Breistroffer 1953, Paraturrilites Breistroffer 1947]WCH96

*Mariella (Mariella) bergeri (Brongniart in Cuvier & Brongniart 1822) [=Turrilites bergeri, *Bergericeras bergeri]WCH96

Mariella (‘Wintonia’) bosquensis (Adkins 1920) [=Turrilites bosquensis; incl. *Wintonia graysonensis Adkins 1928]WCH96

Phlycticrioceras trinodosus (Geinitz 1850) [=Hamites trinodosus; incl. Ancyloceras douvillei Grossouvre 1894, *Phlycticrioceras douvillei, Hamites triseriatus Rominger 1847 (n. o.)]WCH96

Pseudhelicoceras Spath 1922 [=Spiroceras Meek 1876 non Quenstedt 1857; incl. Parahelicoceras Breistroffer 1953, Subhelicoceras Breistroffer 1953]WCH96

Turrilites Lamarck 1801BR05 [incl. Euturrilites Breistroffer 1953WCH96, Turbinites Dubourdieu 1953 non Martin 1809WCH96]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79–96.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KK08] Kennedy, W. J., & H. C. Klinger. 2008. Cretaceous faunas from Zululand and Natal, South Africa. The ammonite subfamily Lyelliceratinae Spath, 1921. African Natural History 4: 57–111.

[K81] Klinger, H. C. 1981. Speculation on buoyancy control and ecology in some heteromorph ammonites. In: House, M. R., & J. R. Senior (eds) The Ammonoidea: The evolution, classification, mode of life and geological usefulness of a major fossil group pp. 337–355. Academic Press.

[P93] Page, K. N. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancyloceratina). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 213–227. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563–602.

[WCH96] Wright, C. W., J. H. Calloman & M. K. Howarth. 1996. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt L. Mollusca 4, revised vol. 4. Cretaceous Ammonoidea. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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