Collection of Turris babylonia, copyright Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Belongs within: Turridae.

Turris is a genus of high-spired conoids found in shallow waters of the Indo-West Pacific (Kilburn et al. 2012).

Characters (from Kilburn et al. 2012): Shell medium to large (adult length 40–185 mm), fusiform with high spire and long, unnotched siphonal canal; anal sinus a deep slot situated on a ridge immediately above the peripheral keel; sculpture of spiral cords or ridges, sinus cord often crenulated. Usually with brown spots or stripes. Protoconch usually minute and papilliform, of 2–5 whorls, smooth, later whorls usually axially ribbed; in some species large and bulbous, of 1.5–2.0 smooth whorls. Operculum ungulate. Radula of duplex marginal teeth, varying considerably in shape, sometimes with a quadrate central tooth bearing a small to large median cusp.

<==Turris Batsch 1789BK11 [=Pleurotoma Lamarck 1799BK11, Pleurotomus Blainville 1810BK11; incl. Annulaturris Powell 1966KFO12]
    |--*T. babylonia (Linnaeus 1758)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--T. abbreviataH22
    |--T. ambages Barnard 1958KFO12
    |--T. amicta (Smith 1877) [=Pleurotoma amicta, Surcula cingulifera var. amicta, Turris (*Annulaturris) amicta]KFO12
    |--T. annulata (Reeve 1843) (see below for synonymy)KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ antillarumG79
    |--T. bipartita Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ brachystomaN79
    |--T. brevicanalis (Kuroda & Oyama in Kuroda et al. 1971) [=Annulaturris brevicanalis]KFO12
    |--T. brevicaudataH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ cancellataN79
    |--T. carlsoni Anderson & Martin 1914 [=Calicantharus carlsoni, Searlesia carlsoni]AV03
    |--T. chaldaea Kilburn, Fedosov & Oivera 2012 (see below for synonymy)KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ cinereaN79
    |--T. cinguliferaH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ circumsecta Mighels 1845J49
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ clarkei Tenison-Woods 1879F71
    |--T. clausifossata Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ compta Reeve 1845H22
    |--T. condei Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ coronata Mighels 1845J49
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ coronifer Bellardi 1877F27
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ costataN79
    |--‘Pleurotoma crassilabrum’ Mighels 1845 non Reeve 1843J49
    |--T. crispa (Lamarck 1816)P66 [=Pleurotoma crispaP66; incl. T. dollyae Olivera 2000KFO12, P. gracillima Weinkauff 1875P66]
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ crispata De Cristofori & Jan 1832BW80
    |--T. cristata Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000KFO12
    |--T. cryptorrhaphe (Sowerby 1825)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ eritmetaBW80
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ excavataH86a
    |--T. faleiroi Kilburn 1998KFO12
    |--T. garnonsii (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma garnonsii]P66
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ gemmata Hinds 1843H09
    |--T. grandis (Gray in Griffiths & Pidgeon 1833) [=Pleurotoma grandis]KFO12
    |--T. granosa (Helbling 1779) [=Murex granosus]H09
    |--T. guidopoppei Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ haasti [incl. Surcula atractoides]H86b
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ harpula (Brocchi 1814) [=Murex harpula]H22
    |--T. hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000 (see below for synonymy)KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ insculpta Mighels 1844J49
    |--T. intercancellata Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12
    |--T. intricata Powell 1964 [=T. crispa intricata]KFO12
    |--T. kantori Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12
    |--T. kathiewayae Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ micans Mighels 1845J49
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ mitrulaN79
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ murndaliana Tenison-Woods 1878F71
    |--T. nadaensis Azuma 1973KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ nebulaN79
    |--T. normandavidsoni Olivera 2000KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ obnubila Mighels 1845J49
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ ocoyana Conrad 1855C64
    |--T. omnipurpurata Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000KFO12
    |--T. optataH22
    |--T. pagasa Olivera 2000 [incl. T. kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000]KFO12
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ parva Conrad 1830F27
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ pengeliiN79
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ philomenaeP79
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ pumila Mighels 1845J49 [incl. P. reticulata Garrett 1857 nec Brown 1827 nec Philippi 1844F27]
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ pustulosumH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ pyramidalisN79
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ renieri Scacchi 1835BW80
    |--‘Pleurotoma reticulata’ Philippi 1844 non Brown 1827F27
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ rufaN79
    |--T. ruthae Kilburn 1983KFO12
    |--T. salebrosaH22
    |--T. selwyni (Pritchard 1904) [=Pleurotoma selwyni]P66
    |--T. septemlirata (Harris 1897) [=Pleurotoma septemlirata]P66
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ sinuosa Mighels 1845J49
    |--T. spectabilis (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma spectabilis]P66
    |--T. subconcavaH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ subfusiformis d’Orbigny 1831TTE93
    |--T. tanyspira Kilburn 1975 [incl. T. ankaramanyensis Bozzetti 2006]KFO12
    |--T. tigrinaH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ todilla Mighels 1845J49
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ torquata Philippi 1844BW80
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ transmontana Conrad 1855C64
    |--T. trilirataH22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ turricola (see below for synonymy)N79
    |--T. undatirugaPP64
    |--T. undosa (Lamarck 1816) [=Pleurotoma undosa; incl. P. raffrayi Tapparone-Canefri 1878]KFO12
    |--T. venusta (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma venusta]KFO12
    `--T. yeddoensis (Jousseaume 1883) [=Pleurotoma yeddoensis, Turris crispa yeddoensis]KFO12

‘Pleurotoma’ turricola [incl. Tritonium roseum Sars in Lovén 1846, P. turricola var. rosea nec P. rosea Quoy & Gaimard 1833 nec Sowerby 1834, Mangelia scalaris Möller 1842, Pleurotoma turricola var. scalaris non P. sclaris Partsch 1837]N79

Turris annulata (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma annulata, T. (Annulaturris) annulata; incl. P. fagina Adams & Reeve 1850, P. fabagina (l. c.), Turris (Tomopleura) fagina]KFO12

*Turris babylonia (Linnaeus 1758)P66 [=Murex babyloniusP66, M. babylonus (l. c.)P66, *Pleurotoma babyloniaP66, Pleurotoma babilonia (l. c.)KFO12, *Pleurotomus babyloniusP66; incl. Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov 2012KFO12, Buccinum coelatum Martyn 1789H22, Turris imperfecti Röding 1798KFO12, T. nobilis Röding 1798KFO12, T. pulchra Röding 1798KFO12, T. tornatum Röding 1798KFO12]

Turris bipartita Kilburn, Fedosov & Olivera 2012KFO12 [=Pleurotoma variegata Kiener 1839 non Philippi 1836KFO12, Turris crispa variegataKFO12; incl. Pleurotoma indica Deshayes 1833 non Turris indica Röding 1798KFO12, Gemmula (Unedogemmula) indicaP66]

Turris chaldaea Kilburn, Fedosov & Oivera 2012 [incl. T. gothica Röding 1798 (n. d.), Pleurotome (l. c. for Pleurotoma) marmorata Link 1807 (n. d.), T. pyramidalis Röding 1798 (n. d.), T. rustica Röding 1798 (n. d.), T. vitrea Röding 1798 (n. d.)]KFO12

Turris cryptorrhaphe (Sowerby 1825)P66 [=Pleurotoma cryptorrhapheP66, Hemipleurotoma cryptorrhapheP66; incl. Murex bicarinatus Wood 1828BW80, Pleurotoma bicarinataBW80, Defrancia cylindracea Möller 1842N79, P. bicarinata var. cylindraceaN79, P. woodii Kiener 1839KFO12]

Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco 2000 [incl. T. totiphyllis Olivera 2000, T. totiphylisorum (l. c.)]KFO12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AV03] Amano, K., & G. J. Vermeij. 2003. Evolutionary adaptation and geographic spread of the Cenozoic buccinid genus Lirabuccinum in the North Pacific. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 863–872.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[KFO12] Kilburn, R. N., A. E. Fedosov & B. M. Olivera. 2012. Revision of the genus Turris Bartsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species. Zootaxa 3244: 1–58.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. Critical remarks on the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods’ “Census of Tasmanian shells”. Journal of Conchology 2: 353–354.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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