Florida worm snail Vermicularia knorri, copyright James St. John.

Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.
Contains: Turritella, Zeacolpus, Tachyrhynchus, Colpospira.

The Turritellidae are a group of high-spired marine gastropods. They are generally sessile, feeding by filtering particles from the water column. Members of the subfamily Vermiculariinae become loose or disjointed in later whorls. Vermiculariines are otherwise similar to members of the Turritellinae and have sometimes been included within that subfamily. Fossils have been assigned to the Turritellidae going back as far as the Lower Devonian (Knight et al. 1960).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): High-spired, with 8 to 20 or more whorls, spiral ornament commonly conspicuous; shallow labral sinus usually culminating at or above mid-whorl with upper limb extending farther adaperturally than lower; siphonal notch or canal wanting.

<==Turritellidae [Turritellacea, Turritellae, Turritellea, Turritellimorpha, Turritelloidei]
    |--Orectospira Dall 1925 [Orectospiridae, Orectospirinae]BR05
    |    `--*O. babelica (Dall 1907) [=Basilissa babelica]BR17
    |--Pareora Marwick 1931 [Pareoridae, Pareorinae]BR05
    |    `--*P. striolata (Hutton 1885) [=Eglisia striolata]BR17
    |--Protoma Baird 1870 [Protominae]BR05
    |    `--*P. knockeri Baird 1870BR17
    |--Omalaxis Deshayes 1832BR05 [=Homalaxis Fischer 1885BR05; Homalaxinae, Omalaxidae, OmalaxinaeBR17]
    |    |--*O. disjuncta (Lamarck 1804) [=Solarium disjunctum]BR17
    |    |--O. cresnensis (Morlet 1888)TTE93
    |    |--O. deshayesi (Michaud in Deshayes 1863)TTE93
    |    |--O. disjunctus ((Lamarck 1804)TTE93
    |    |--O. laudunensis (Defrance 1828)TTE93
    |    |--O. meridionalisF27a
    |    `--O. radiata Hedley 1907H09
    |--Vermicularia Lamarck 1799 non Tode 1790 (ICBN) [Vermiculariidae, Vermiculariinae]BR05
    |    |--*V. lumbricalis (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 [=Serpula lumbricalisBR17, Turbo (Vermicularia) lumbricalisG20]
    |    |--V. caperataH08
    |    |--V. eburnea Reeve 1842O27
    |    |--V. fewkesiiB56
    |    |--V. frisbeyae McLean 1970PP78
    |    |--V. hedleyi Finlay 1927 [=V. nodosa Hedley 1907 non Kaunhowen 1897]F27b
    |    |--V. knorri (Deshayes 1843)HC79
    |    |--V. maorianaD56
    |    |--V. maxima (Sowerby 1825) [=Serpula maxima]H09
    |    |--V. novaehollandiaeH09
    |    |--V. ophioides Marshall & Murdoch 1921F27a
    |    |--‘Siphonium’ planatum Suter 1913F27a
    |    `--V. quoyi (Adams & Adams 1854) [=Cladopoda quoyi]H09
         |--Zaria Gray 1842 [Zariana, Zariinae]BR05
         |    `--*Z. duplicata (Linnaeus 1767)BR17 [=Turbo duplicatusBR17; incl. Z. acutangulus Linnaeus 1758W93]
         |--Archimediella Sacco 1895 [Archimediellidae, Archimedielloidea]BR05
         |    |--*A. archimedis (Brongniart 1823) [=Turritella archimedis]BR17
         |    |--A. dirkhartogensis Garrard 1972MG-H11
         |    |--A. fastigiata (Adams & Reeve 1848)W93
         |    |--A. maculata (Reeve 1849)W93
         |    `--A. occidua (Cotton 1935)W93
         |--Gazameda Iredale 1924W93
         |    |--*G. gunnii (Reeve 1848) [=Turritella gunnii; incl. G. philippensis Watson 1881]W93
         |    |--G. acricula [=Turritella acricula]F27a
         |    |--G. declivis (Adams & Reeve 1848) [incl. G. captiva Hedley 1907]W93
         |    |--G. iredalei Finlay 1927F27b [=Turritella clathrata Kiener & Fischer 1873 non Deshayes 1833W93, F27b]
         |    `--G. tasmanica (Reeve 1849)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Maoricolpus Finlay 1927W93
         |    |--*M. roseus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--M. r. roseusP61
         |    |    `--M. r. manukauensis Powell 1931P61
         |    |--M. cavershamensis (Harris 1897)F27a [=Turritella cavershamensisF27a, T. gigantea Hutton 1873 (preoc.)F27b]
         |    |--M. finlayi Powell 1940P61
         |    |--M. gittosinus (Powell & Bartrum 1929) [=Turritella (Maoricolpus) gittosina]PB29
         |    |--M. murrayanus [=Turritella murrayana]F27a
         |    `--M. waitemataensis (Powell & Bartrum 1929) [=Turritella (Maoricolpus) waitemataensis]PB29
         `--Haustator Montfort 1810W93
              |  i. s.: H. polonicus Schröder 1995NB00
              |--*H. (Haustator) imbricataria [=Turritella imbricataria]W93
              `--H. (Kurosioia Ida 1952)W93
                   |--H. (*K.) kurosia [=Turritella kurosia]W93
                   |--H. (K.) cingulifera (Sowerby 1825) (see below for synonymy)W93
                   |--H. (K.) gilletti Garrard 1974W93
                   `--H. (K.) leeuwinensis Garrard 1972W93

Turritellidae incertae sedis:
  Spirocolpus Finlay 1927F27a
    |--*S. waihaoensis (Marwick 1924) [=Turritella waihaoensis]F27a
    |--S. aldingae (Tate 1882)DK08 [=Turritella aldingaeF27a]
    |--S. conspicabilis (Tate 1924) [=Turritella conspicabilis]F27a
    |--S. rudis (Marshall 1919) [=Turritella rudis]F27a
    |--S. tophina (Marwick 1926) [=Turritella tophina]F27a
    `--S. tristira (Tate 1924) [=Turritella tristira]F27a
  Callispira Nelson 1947KC60
    `--*C. quinquecostata Nelson 1947KC60
  Torcula murryanaH86
  Calvertitella Petuch 1988P12
    `--C. indenta (Conrad 1841)P12
  Mariacolpus Petuch 1988P12
    `--M. plebeia (Say 1824)P12
    |--T. dupiniana (Orbigny 1842)TTE93
    `--T. tamra (Abbass 1962)TTE93
    |--M. brevialisPP64
    |--M. lacteaC64
    `--M. striolataA26

Gazameda tasmanica (Reeve 1849)W93 [=Turritella tasmanicaF27a; incl. G. acuta Tenison Woods 1876W93, G. lamellosa Watson 1881W93, G. oxyacris Tate 1897W93, Turritella subsquamosa Dunker 1871F27a, W93]

Haustator (Kurosioia) cingulifera (Sowerby 1825) [incl. H. bicolor Adams & Reeve 1848, H. fascialis Menke 1830, H. fragilis Kiener 1873, H. fuscotincta Petit 1853, H. gracillima Gould 1861, H. parva Angas 1877, H. tricarinata King 1832]W93

*Maoricolpus roseus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)P61 [=Turritella roseaP61; incl. T. difficilis Suter 1908 nec d’Orbigny 1842 nec Zekeli 1852F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[D56] Dell, R. K. 1956. The archibenthal Mollusca of New Zealand. Dominion Museum Bulletin 18: 1–235.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HC79] Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (4): 1–101.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[NB00] Nützel, A., & K. Bandel. 2000. Goniasmidae and Orthonemidae: two new families of the Palaeozoic Caenogastropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Monatshefte 2000 (9): 557–569.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PB29] Powell, A. W. B., & J. A. Bartrum. 1929. The Tertiary (Waitematan) molluscan fauna of Oneroa, Waiheke Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 60: 395–447.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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