Female Cephalobus, from Marisol Quintanill Tornel.

Belongs within: Secernentea.
Contains: Criconematina, Tylenchoidea, Hoplolaimina, Anguinoidea, Neotylenchidae, Parasitylenchidae, Sphaerulariidae, Allantonematidae, Paurodontinae.

The Tylenchina is a group of nematodes supported as monophyletic by molecular analyses. The clade lacks clear morphological synapomorphies, but potential ancestral characters include a stegostom without epithelial interradial cells or glottoid part, the absence of a median bulb, mono-prodelphy, and the absence of a bursa (Ley & Blaxter 2002).

The Sphaerularioidea is a group of nematodes of which most species are internal parasites of insects for part of their life cycles. Exceptions are in the family Anguinidae, whose members are free-living fungus feeders or parasites of plants.

Tylenchida [Allantonematida, Tylenchina]S00
    |  `--+--TylenchoideaS00
    |     `--HoplolaiminaS00
       `--Sphaerularioidea [Allantonematina, Heterotylenchina, Hexatylina, Iotonchioidea, Sphaerulariina]S00
            |  i. s.: Anguillonema Fuchs 1938S00
            |           |--*A. poligraphi Fuchs 1938 (n. d.)S00
            |           `--A. crenati Fuchs 1938 (n. d.)S00
            |         Helionema Brzeski 1962S00
            |           `--*H. gracile Brzeski 1962 (n. d.)S00
            |         Robleus Massey 1974S00
            |           `--*R. cylindricus Massey 1974 (n. d.)S00
            |--Phaenopsitylenchus Blinova & Korenchenko 1986 [Phaenopsitylenchidae]PJ02
            |--Beddingia Blinova & Korenchenko 1986 [Beddingiidae]PJ02
            |    |--Anandranema Poinar, Ferro et al. 1993PJ02
            |    |    `--*A. phlebotophaga Poinar et al. 1993S00, PJ02
            |    `--Elaeolenchus Poinar, Jackson et al. 2002PJ02
            |         `--*E. parthenonema Poinar, Jackson et al. 2002PJ02
            |--Fergusobia Currie 1937S00 [incl. Dorsalla Jairajpuri 1966S00; FergusobiidaePJ02, Fergusobiinae]
            |    |--*F. tumifaciens (Currie 1937) [=Anguillulina (*Fergusobia) tumifaciens, A. (F.) curriei Johnston 1938]S00
            |    |--F. brevicauda Siddiqi 1996S00
            |    |--F. fisheri Davies & Lloyd 1996S00
            |    |--F. indica (Jairajpuri 1962) [=Boleodorus indicus, Dorsalla indica]S00
            |    |--F. jambophila Siddiqi 1986S00
            |    |--F. magna Siddiqi 1986S00
            |    `--F. philippinensis Siddiqi 1996S00
            `--Iotonchiidae [Iotonchiinae, Skarbilovinematinae]PJ02
                 |--Skarbilovinema Chizhov & Zakharenkova 1991S00
                 |    |--*S. laumondi Chizhov & Zakharenkova 1991S00
                 |    `--S. lyoni Chizhov & Zakharenkova 1991S00
                 |--Iotonchium Cobb 1920S00
                 |    |--*I. imperfectum (Bütschli 1876) [=Tylenchus imperfectus, Anguillulina (Iotonchium) imperfecta]S00
                 |    |--I. cateniforme Tsuda & Futai 1999S00
                 |    |--I. cephalostrictum Meyl 1954S00
                 |    `--I. mycophilum Meyl 1954S00
                 |--Fungiotonchium Siddiqi 1986S00
                 |    |--*F. bifurcatum (Goodey 1953) [=Iotonchium bifurcatum]S00
                 |    |--F. californicum (Poinar 1991) [=Iotonchium californicum]S00
                 |    |--F. fungorum (Bütschli 1873) (see below for synonymy)S00
                 |    `--F. macrospiculatum ((Meyl 1954) [=Hexatylus macrospiculatus, Iotonchium macrospiculatum]S00
                 `--Paraiotonchium Slobodyanyuk 1975S00
                      |--*P. autumnale (Nickle 1967) [=Heterotylenchus autumnalis]S00
                      |--P. muscadomesticae Coler & Nguyen 1994S00
                      |--P. nicholasi Slobodyanyuk 1975S00
                      |--P. osiris Slobodyanyuk 1976S00
                      `--P. xanthomelas (Reddy & Rao 1988) [=Heterotylenchus xanthomelas]S00
Nomen nudum: Iotonchium sabulosum Izatullaeva 1967S00

Fungiotonchium fungorum (Bütschli 1873) [=Tylenchus fungorus, Anguillulina fungora, Hexatylus fungorus, Iotonchium fungorum, Neotylenchus fungorus]S00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[PJ02] Poinar, G. O., Jr., T. A. Jackson, N. L. Bell & M. B. Wahid. 2002. Elaeolenchus parthenonema n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Sphaerularioidea: Anandranematidae n. fam.) parasitic in the palm-pollinating weevil Elaeidobius kamerunincus Faust, with a phylogenetic synopsis of the Sphaerularioidea Lubbock 1861. Systematic Parasitology 52: 219–225.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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