Tylenchoidea

Southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, from the United States Department of Agriculture.

Belongs within: Tylenchida.
Contains: Ecphyadophoroidinae, Tylenchinae, Boleodorinae, Duosulciinae.

The Tylenchoidea are a group of nematodes including free-living feeders on soil fungi and algae, and parasites (both external and internal) of plant tissues.

Characters (from Maggenti et al. 1987): Lip region generally hexaradiate and distinguished from general body contour. Labial region supported by a cuticularized skeleton that may or may not be well developed. Procorpus generally set off from metacorpus, usually slender and cylindrical. Isthmus narrow and leads to the expanded glandular region almost always wider than the metacorpus. Glandular region consists of three glands ending at the beginning of the intestine or variously overlapping this structure. Phasmids commonly adanal, on the tail or erratically on body.

<==Tylenchoidea [Tylenchata]
    |--Atylenchidae [Atylenchoidea]S00
    |    |--Atylenchus Cobb 1913 [Atylenchinae]S00
    |    |    `--*A. decalineatus Cobb 1913 [=Eutylenchus decalineatus]S00
    |    `--Eutylenchus Cobb 1913 [Eutylenchinae]S00
    |         |--*E. setiferus (Cobb 1893) [=Tylenchus setiferus]S00
    |         |--E. africanus Sher, Corbett & Colbran 1966 [incl. E. orientalis Husain & Khan 1968]S00
    |         |--E. excretorius Ebsary & Eveleigh 1981S00
    |         |--E. fueguensis Valenzuela-A. & Raski 1985S00
    |         `--E. vitiensis Orton Williams 1979S00
    |--EcphyadophoridaeS00
    |    |--EcphyadophoroidinaeS00
    |    `--EcphyadophorinaeS00
    |         |--Ultratenella Siddiqi 1994S00
    |         |    `--*U. vitrea Siddiqi 1994S00
    |         `--Ecphyadophora de Man 1921 [incl. Karachinema Maqbool & Shahina 1985]S00
    |              |--*E. tenuissima de Man 1921 [incl. E. tarjani Husain & Khan 1965]S00
    |              |--E. basiri Verma 1972 [incl. E. tritici Verma 1972]S00
    |              |--E. caelata Raski & Geraert 1986S00
    |              |--E. elongata (Maqbool & Shahina 1985) [=Karachinema elongatum]S00
    |              |--E. goodeyi Husain & Khan 1965S00
    |              |--E. quadralata Corbett 1964 [incl. E. acuta Husain & Khan 1968]S00
    |              |--E. teres Raski, Koshy & Sosamma 1982S00
    |              `--E. vallipuriensis Husain & Khan 1968S00
    |--Tylenchidae [Boleodoridae]LB02
    |    |--TylenchinaeS00
    |    |--BoleodorinaeS00
    |    |--DuosulciinaeS00
    |    |--Tanzanius Siddiqi 1991 [Tanzaniinae]S00
    |    |    `--*T. coffeae Siddiqi 1991S00
    |    `--ThadinaeS00
    |         |--Thada Thorne 1941S00
    |         |    `--*T. striata Thorne 1941S00
    |         `--Neothada Khan 1973S00
    |              |--*N. tatra (Thorne & Malek 1968) [=Thada tatra]S00
    |              |--N. andrassyi Heyns & Van den Berg 1996S00
    |              |--N. cancellata (Thorne 1941) [=Thada cancellata]S00
    |              |--N. costata (Geaert & Raski 1986) [=Basirienchus costata]S00
    |              |--N. geraerti (Andrássy 1982) [=Thada geraerti]S00
    |              |--N. hades Heyns & Van den Berg 1996S00
    |              `--N. major Maqbool & Shahina 1989S00
    `--TylodoridaeS00
         |--EpicharinematinaeS00
         |    |--Epicharinema Raski, Maggenti et al. 1980S00
         |    |    `--*E. keralense Raski, Maggenti et al. 1980S00
         |    `--Gracilancea Siddiqi 1976S00
         |         `--*G. graciloides (Micoletzky 1925) (see below for synonymy)S00
         |--TylodorinaeS00
         |    |--Arboritynchus Reay 1991S00
         |    |    `--*A. simpsoni Reay 1991S00
         |    `--Tylodorus Meagher 1964S00
         |         |--*T. acuminatus Meagher 1964S00
         |         `--T. fisheri Reay 1991S00
         `--Pleurotylenchinae [Campbellenchinae]S00
              |--Pleurotylenchus Szczygieł 1969S00
              |    |--*P. sachsi (Hirschmann 1952) [=Tylenchus sachsi, Aglenchus sachsi]S00
              |    `--P. minor Ebsary 1986S00
              |--Campbellenchus Wouts 1978S00
              |    |--*C. poae Wouts 1978S00
              |    `--C. filicauda Wouts 1978S00
              `--Cephalenchus Goodey 1962 [incl. Imphalenchus Dhanachand & Jairajpuri 1980]S00
                   |--C. hexalineatus (Geraert 1962) (see below for synonymy)S00
                   |--C. brevicaudatus Raski & Geraert 1986S00
                   |--C. cephalodiscus Sultan & Jairajpuri 1982S00
                   |--C. chilensis Raski & Geraert 1986S00
                   |--C. concavus Xie & Feng 1994S00
                   |--C. cylindricus Sultan & Jairajpuri 1982S00
                   |--C. daisuce Mizukubo & Minagawa 1985 [=C. leptus daisuce]S00
                   |--C. emarginatus (Cobb 1893) (see below for synonymy)S00
                   |--C. illustris Andrássy 1984S00
                   |--C. imphalus Dhanachand, Renubala & Anandi 1993S00
                   |--C. indicus (Dhanachand & Jairajpuri 1980) [=Imphalenchus indicus]S00
                   |--C. intermedius Kanwar, Bajaj & Dabut 1993S00
                   |--C. leptus (Siddiqi 1963) (see below for synonymy)S00
                   |--C. lobus Dhanachand & Jairajpuri 1980 [incl. C. sacchari Maqbool, Fatima & Shahina 1984]S00
                   |--C. longicaudatus Maqbool & Ghazala 1986S00
                   |--C. macrodorus (Chawla, Prasad et al. 1969) (see below for synonymy)S00
                   |--C. nemoralis Mizukubo & Minagawa 1985S00
                   |--C. planus Siddiqui & Khan 1983S00
                   |--C. potamophilus Mizukubo & Minagawa 1985S00
                   `--C. tahus Wood 1973S00

Cephalenchus emarginatus (Cobb 1893) [=Tylenchus emarginatus, Anguillulina emarginata; incl. Cephalenchus rotundus Siddiqui & Khan 1983]S00

Cephalenchus hexalineatus (Geraert 1962) [=Tylenchus hexalineatus; incl. T. (*Cephalenchus) megacephalus Goodey 1962, T. (Aglenchus) whitus Egunjobi 1967, Cephalenchus whitus]S00

Cephalenchus leptus (Siddiqi 1963) [=Tylenchus (Cephalenchus) leptus; incl. T. (Filenchus) limichus Nesterov 1973, Cephalenchus limichus]S00

Cephalenchus macrodorus (Chawla, Prasad et al. 1969) [=Tylenchus (Aglenchus) macrodorus, Filenchus macrodorus, Imphalenchus macrodorus]S00

*Gracilancea graciloides (Micoletzky 1925) [=Tylenchus graciloides, Anguillulina graciloides, Filenchus graciloides]S00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 1–30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

Maggenti, A. R., M. Luc, D. J. Raski, R. Fortuner & E. Geraert. 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 2. Classification of the suborder Tylenchina (Nemata: Diplogasteria). Revue Nématol. 10 (2): 135–142.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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