Tyrannosauroidea

Skeletal mount of Tyrannosaurus rex, copyright Scott Robert Anselmo.

Belongs within: Coelurosauria.

The Tyrannosauroidea are a clade of theropod dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous of Asia and North America including some of the largest of all carnivorous dinosaurs, as well as a number of smaller basal forms. Yutyrannus huali from the lower Cretaceous of China is the largest known dinosaur to preserve direct evidence of a covering of feathers (Xu et al. 2012).

<==TyrannosauroideaXN04
    |--ProceratosauridaeBN10
    |    |--KileskusBN10
    |    `--+--Sinotyrannus kazuoensisXW12, P10
    |       `--+--Guanlong Xu, Clark et al. 2006XW12, XC06
    |          |    `--*G. wucaii Xu, Clark et al. 2006XC06 [=Monolophosaurus wucaiiP10]
    |          `--Proceratosaurus Huene 1926XW12, HMC04
    |               `--P. bradleyi (Woodward 1910) [=Megalosaurus bradleyi]HMC04
    `--+--Dilong Xu, Norell et al. 2004BN10, XN04
       |    `--*D. paradoxus Xu, Norell et al. 2004XN04
       `--+--Stokesosaurus Madsen 1974BN10, H04
          |    |--S. clevelandi Madsen 1974H04
          |    `--S. langhamiXC09
          `--+--Yutyrannus Xu, Wang et al. 2012XW12
             |    `--*Y. huali Xu, Wang et al. 2012XW12
             `--+--Eotyrannus Hutt, Naish et al. 2001XW12, H04
                |    `--E. lengi Hutt, Naish et al. 2001H04
                `--+--Xiongguanglong baimoensisXW12
                   `--+--Dryptosaurus Marsh 1877XW12, H04
                      |    `--D. aquilunguis (Cope 1866) [=Laelaps aquilunguis]H04
                      `--+--Raptorex Sereno, Tan et al. 2009XW12, ST09
                         |    `--*R. kriegsteini Sereno, Tan et al. 2009ST09
                         `--+--Appalachiosaurus Carr, Williamson & Schwimmer 2005XW12, D07
                            |    `--A. montgomeriensis [=Albertosaurus montgomeriensis]P10
                            `--+--Bistahieversor sealeyiXW12, P10
                               `--Tyrannosauridae [Deinodontidae, Dinodontidae]XN04
                                    |  i. s.: Aublysodon Leidy 1868 [Aublysodontinae]P88
                                    |           |--A. amplus Marsh 1892 (n. d.)H04
                                    |           |--A. cristatus Marsh 1892 (n. d.)H04
                                    |           |--A. lateralis Cope 1876 (n. d.)H04
                                    |           `--A. mirandus Leidy 1868 (n. d.)H04
                                    |         Labocania Molnar 1974N85, H04
                                    |           `--L. anomala Molnar 1974H04
                                    |         ProdeinodonN85
                                    |           |--P. kwangshiensis Hou, Yeh & Zhao 1975 (n. d.)HMC04
                                    |           `--P. mongoliensis Osborn 1924 (n. d.)HMC04
                                    |         Alectrosaurus Gilmore 1933H04
                                    |           `--A. olseni Gilmore 1933H04 [=Albertosaurus (Alectrosaurus) olseniP88]
                                    |--AlbertosaurinaeH04
                                    |    |--Albertosaurus Osborn 1905XW12, H04
                                    |    |    `--*A. sarcophagus Osborn 1905N85 [incl. A. arctunguis Parks 1928H04]
                                    |    `--Gorgosaurus Lambe 1914 [incl. Deinodon Leidy 1856]H04
                                    |         `--G. libratus Lambe 1914H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                    `--TyrannosaurinaeH04
                                         |--Alioramus Kurzanov 1976XW12, H04
                                         |    |--A. altai Brusatte, Carr et al. 2009BC09
                                         |    `--A. remotus Kurzanov 1976H04
                                         `--+--TeratophoneusXW12
                                            `--+--Daspletosaurus Russell 1970H04
                                               |    `--D. torosus Russell 1970H04 [=Tyrannosaurus (Daspletosaurus) torosusP88]
                                               `--+--Tarbosaurus Maleev 1955 (see below for synonymy)H04
                                                  |    `--T. bataar (Maleev 1955)H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                                  `--+--Nanotyrannus Bakker, Williams & Currie 1988XN04, H04
                                                     |    `--N. lancensis (Gilmore 1946)H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     `--Tyrannosaurus Osborn 1905XW12, H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                                          |--T. lanpingensis Yeh 1975 (n. d.)H04
                                                          `--T. rex Osborn 1905H04 (see below for synonymy)
Tyrannosauroidea incertae sedis:
  Bagaraatan Osmólska 1996H04
    `--B. ostromi Osmólska 1996H04
  ‘Ornithomimus’ grandis Marsh 1890H04
  ‘Chilantaisaurus’ maortuensis Hu 1964H04
  Santanaraptor Kellner 1999H04
    `--S. placidus Kellner 1999H04
  Laelaps macropus Cope 1868 (n. d.)H04
  Diplotomodon Leidy 1868 (n. d.)H04
    `--*D. horrificus (Leidy 1868) (n. d.) [=Tomodon horrificus]H04
  Iliosuchus Huene 1932D07, HMC04 [Iliosuchidae]
    `--I. incognitus Huene 1932HMC04
  Aviatyrannis jurassicaP10
  Xinjiangovenator parvusP10

Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe 1914H04 [=Albertosaurus libratusN85; incl. Laelaps falculus Cope 1876H04, Dromaeosaurus falculusO69, L. hazenianus Cope 1876H04, Deinodon horridus Leidy 1856 (n. d.)H04, L. incrassatus Cope 1876H04, Dryptosaurus incrassatusP88, D. kenabekides Hay 1899H04, Gorgosaurus sternbergi Matthew & Brown 1923H04, Albertosaurus sternbergiP88]

Nanotyrannus lancensis (Gilmore 1946)H04 [=Gorgosaurus lancensisH04, Albertosaurus (Nanotyrannus) lancensisP88]

Tarbosaurus Maleev 1955XW12, H04 [incl. Chingkankosaurus Young 1958H04, Maleevosaurus Carpenter 1992H04, Shanshanosaurus Dong 1977H04]

Tarbosaurus bataar (Maleev 1955)H04 [=Tyrannosaurus bataarH04; incl. Ta. efremovi Maleev 1955H04, Chingkankousaurus fragilis Young 1958H04, Shanshanosaurus huoyanshanensis Dong 1977H04, Aublysodon huoyanshanensisP88, Gorgosaurus lancinator Maleev 1955H04, Tyrannnosaurus luanchuanensis Dong 1979H04, G. novojilovi Maleev 1955H04, Albertosaurus novojiloviH04, Aublysodon novojiloviH04, Deinodon novojiloviH04, Maleevosaurus novojiloviH04, Albertosaurus periculosus Riabinin 1930H04, Tyrannosaurus turpanensis Zhai, Zheng & Tong 1978H04]

Tyrannosaurus Osborn 1905XW12, H04 [incl. Dynamosaurus Osborn 1905H04, Manospondylus Cope 1892H04]

Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn 1905H04 [incl. Manospondylus gigas Cope 1892H04, Dynamosaurus imperiosus Osborn 1905H04, Albertosaurus megagracilis Paul 1988H04, Aublysodon molnaris Paul 1988H04, P88]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BC09] Brusatte, S. L., T. D. Carr, G. M. Erickson, G. S. Bever & M. A. Norell. 2009. A long-snouted, multihorned tyrannosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (41): 17261–17266.

[BN10] Brusatte, S. L., M. A. Norell, T. D. Carr, G. M. Erickson, J. R. Hutchinson, A. M. Balanoff, G. S. Bever, J. N. Choiniere, P. J. Makovicky & X. Xu. 2010. Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms. Science 329: 1481–1485.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[H04] Holtz, T. R. 2004. Tyrannosauroidea. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 111–136. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[HMC04] Holtz, T. R., Jr, R. E. Molnar & P. J. Currie. 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 71–110. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[O69] Ostrom, J. H. 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 30: 1–165.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[P10] Paul, G. S. 2010. Dinosaurs: A Field Guide. A & C Black.

[ST09] Sereno, P. C., L. Tan, S. L. Brusatte, H. J. Kriegstein, X. Zhao & K. Cloward. 2009. Tyrannosaurid skeletal design first evolved at small body size. Science 326: 418–422.

[XC06] Xu, X., J. M. Clark, C. A. Forster, M. A. Norell, G. M. Erickson, D. A. Eberth, C. Jia & Q. Zhao. 2006. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China. Nature 439: 715–718.

[XC09] Xu, X., J. M. Clark, J. Mo, J. Choiniere, C. A. Forster, G. M. Erickson, D. W. E. Hone, C. Sullivan, D. A. Eberth, S. Nesbitt, Q. Zhao, R. Hernandez, C.-K. Jia, F.-L. Han & Y. Guo. 2009. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies. Nature 459: 940–944.

[XN04] Xu, X., M. A. Norell, X. Kuang, X. Wang, Q. Zhao & C. Jia. 2004. Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroids. Nature 431: 680–684.

[XW12] Xu, X., K. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, C. Sullivan, D. Hu, S. Cheng & S. Wang. 2012. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Nature 484: 92–95.

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