Physiphora aenea, copyright Dr Yeshwanth.

Belongs within: Tephritoidea.
Contains: Lipsanini, Pterocallini.

The Ulidiidae, picture-winged flies, are a group of medium-sized flies with usually contrastingly patterned wings and mostly saprophagous larvae (Kameneva & Korneyev 2010). Members of the subfamily Otitinae are characterised by an aedeagus that is bristly or hairy or has teeth or blades on the stem, with a more or less simple tip. Males of Ulidiinae have a bare aedeagus, sometimes with a specialised end structure (Steyskal 1987). In the genus Physiphora, the aedeagus bears sclerotised subapical hooks; females bear three spermathecae (Kameneva & Korneyev 2010).

Characters (from Kameneva & Korneyev 2010): Medium-sized (body length 2–14 mm, most commonly 4–7 mm), usually with moderately elongate body. Coloration yellow to brown or black with pattern of microtrichose spots or bands, often with metallic blue or green sheen. Inner and outer vertical, ocellar, divergent postocellar and orbital (one or two, anterior one shortest) setae present; frontal setae usually absent. Frons sometimes pitted or wrinkled. Clypeus moderately large. Proboscis with moderately developed prementum. Thorax usually longer than broad. Wings with pattern of dark spots or bands, rarely completely hyaline; Sc vein complete, C with distinct humeral break, subcostal break indistinct. Legs moderately developed, usually without rows of spines or strong setae; tibiae without dorsal setulae or setae. Females with telescopic ovipositor; males with long phallus, hidden in membranous pocket on ventral side of abdomen and bearing no glans at apex.

<==Ulidiidae [Otitidae, Pterocallidae]KK10
    |    |--Anacampta hyalinataK01
    |    |--OrtalisK01
    |    |    |--O. astrolabei Boisduval 1835B35
    |    |    `--O. formosaK01
    |    `--CeroxysM90
    |         |--C. latiusculusS87
    |         `--C. pictaK01
    |    |  i. s.: Pseudeuxesta primaO98
    |    |--LipsaniniKK10
    |    |--PterocalliniKK10
    |    |--PhysiphoraKK10 [incl. ChrysomyzaRD77; UlidiiniKK10]
    |    |    |--P. aeneaS87
    |    |    |--P. clausaKK10
    |    |    `--P. demandataS87 [=Chrysomyza demandataE66]
    |    `--SeiopteriniKK10
    |         |--Seioptera vibransS87, T90
    |         |--PseudoseiopteraKK10
    |         `--Homalocephala similisKK10, S87
         |  i. s.: CurranopsS87
         |         TujungaS87
         |         UlidiotitesS87
         |         HerinaO98
         |           |--H. canadensisS87
         |           `--H. palustrisWT11
         |    |--Delphinia pictaKK10
         |    |--Tritoxa flexaKK10, S87
         |    |--Pterotaenia fasciataKK10
         |    `--Proteseia steyskaliKK10
         |    |--Idana marginataKK10, S87
         |    |--Diacrita costalisKK10
         |    |--OtitesS87
         |    `--TetanopsKK10
         |         |--T. luridipennisE66
         |         `--T. (Eurycephalomyia) myopaeformisKK10
              |--Myennis octopunctataKK10, RD77
              |--Dyscrasis hendeliKK10
              |--Neodyscrasis steyskaliKK10
              |--Pseudodyscrasis scutellarisKK10
                   |--P. corticalisS87
                   `--P. cribellumM90
Ulidiidae incertae sedis:
    |--M. calligraphaGE05
    `--M. omissaWT11
  Myrmecothea myrmecoidesS87
  Stictomyia longicornisKK10, S87
  Oedopa capitoS87
  Myiomyrmica fenestrataS87
  Pseudotephritina cribellumS87
  Hiatus fulvipesS87
  Haigia nevadanaS87
  Texasa chaetifronsS87
  Paroedopa punctigeraS87
  Tetropismenus hirtusS87
  Polistomima stigmaR78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KK10] Kameneva, E. P., & V. A. Korneyev. 2010. Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 881–902. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Otitidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 799–808. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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