Sea lettuce Ulva lactuca, copyright Tigerente.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.

The Ulvales are an order of green algae with uninucleate cells that most commonly have isomorphic sporo- and gametophytes (Norris 2010).

Characters (from Norris 2010): Algae multicellular, consisting of biseriate filaments or monostromatic or distromatic thalli that are tubular or compressed or form partly to completely flattened blades. Growth by intercalary cell division. Cells uninucleate, with single laminate or cup-shaped chloroplast and one or more pyrenoids. Life histories usually isomorphic with phases of morphologically similar asexual and sexual thalli; occasionally heteromorphic, with dissimilar gametophytes and sporophytes. Asexual reproduction by bi- or quadriflagellate zoospores, formed within cells, or by fragmentation. Sexual reproduction isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous.

    |  i. s.: Percursaria percursa (Agardh) Bory 1828S57 [=Enteromorpha percursa (Agardh) Agardh 1882S57, L27]
    |           |--P. p. var. percursaL27
    |           `--‘Enteromorpha’ percursa var. ramosaL27
    `--Ulvaceae [Ulveae]N10
         |--Blidingia Kylin 1947N10
         |    |--B. marginata (Agardh) Dangeard ex Bliding 1963 N10 [=Enteromorpha marginata Agardh 1842N10, S57]
         |    `--B. minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin 1947N10 [=Enteromorpha minima Kützing 1849S57, L27]
         |         |--B. m. var. minimaS57
         |         `--B. m. var. subsalsa (Kjellman) Scagel 1957 (see below for synonymy)S57
         `--Ulva Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Chloropelta Tanner 1980]N10
              |  i. s.: U. australisHK90
              |         U. cornucopiae (Kützing) Agardh 1882L27 [=Enteromorpha cornucopiaeG64]
              |         U. crispaG64
              |         U. expansa (Setchell) Setchell & Gardner 1920 [=U. fasciata f. expansa]N10
              |         U. fasciata Delile 1813N10 [incl. U. latissima δ palmataBS-V28]
              |         U. fenestrata Postels & Ruprecht 1840S57
              |         U. laetevirens Aresch 1854L27
              |         U. latissima Linnaeus 1753S57 [=Phycoseris latissimaG64, U. lactuca var. latissima Le Jolis 1880L27]
              |         U. ligula Montagne 1849L27
              |         U. mutabilisKT03
              |         U. paradoxa Agardh 1817N10 [=U. flexuosa ssp. paradoxaHL09; incl. Enteromorpha plumosa Kützing 1843N10]
              |         U. pertusa Kjellman 1897N10
              |         U. pseudocurvataKT03
              |         U. reticulata Montagne 1845NLS03, L27
              |         U. scandinavicaKT03
              |         U. umbilicalis [=U. latissima γ umbilicalis]BS-V28
              |--U. sect. UlvaN10
              |    |--*U. lactuca Linnaeus 1753N10
              |    |--U. californica Wille in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1899 (see below for synonymy)N10
              |    |--U. lobata (Kützing) Harvey 1855 (see below for synonymy)N10
              |    |--U. nematoidea Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828 (see below for synonymy)N10
              |    `--U. rigida Agardh 1823 [=U. lactuca var. rigida (Agardh) Le Jolis 1863]N10
              `--U. sect. Enteromorpha [=Enteromorpha Link in Nees 1820]N10
                   |--U. acanthophora (Kützing) Hayden, Blomster et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy)N10
                   |--‘Enteromorpha’ bulbosa (Suhr.) Kützing 1849L27
                   |--‘Enteromorpha’ chlorotica Agardh 1882L27
                   |--U. clathrata (Roth) Agardh 1811N10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--U. compressa Linnaeus 1753N10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--U. flexuosa Wulfen 1803 (see below for synonymy)N10
                   |--‘Enteromorpha’ hopkirkiiG64
                   |--U. intestinalis Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy)N10
                   |    |--U. i. f. intestinalisS57
                   |    |--‘Enteromorpha’ i. f. clavata Agardh 1883S57
                   |    |--‘Enteromorpha’ i. f. cylindracea Agardh 1883S57
                   |    `--‘Enteromorpha’ i. f. maxima Agardh 1883S57
                   |--U. linza Linnaeus 1753N10 [=Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) Agardh 1883N10, Phycoseris linzaG74]
                   |--U. prolifera Müller 1778 [=Enteromorpha prolifera (Müller) Agardh 1883]N10
                   |--U. radiata (Agardh) Hayden, Blomster et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy)N10
                   |--U. ralfsii (Harvey) Le Jolis 1863HL09, HS14 [=Enteromorpha ralfsiiHL09]
                   |--‘Enteromorpha’ torta (Mertens) Reinbold 1893S57
                   `--‘Enteromorpha’ usneoidesRA05

Blidingia minima var. subsalsa (Kjellman) Scagel 1957 [=Enteromorpha micrococca f. subsalsa, E. minima var. subsalsa]S57

Ulva acanthophora (Kützing) Hayden, Blomster et al. 2003 [=Enteromorpha acanthophora Kützing 1849, E. ramulosa var. acanthophora (Kützing) Chapman 1956]N10

Ulva californica Wille in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1899 [incl. U. angusta Setchell & Gardner 1920, Enteromorpha angusta (Setchell & Gardner) Doty 1947, U. scagelii Chihara 1968]N10

Ulva clathrata (Roth) Agardh 1811N10 [=Conferva clathrata Roth 1806N10, Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville 1830N10; incl. E. crinita Link in Nees 1820N10, E. clathrata var. crinita (Link) Hauck 1884N10, E. erectaG64, E. linkianaG64, Ulva muscoides Clemente y Rubio 1807N10, E. muscoides (Clemente y Rubio) Cremades in Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1990N10, U. ramulosa Smith 1810N10, E. ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael in Hooker 1833N10]

Ulva compressa Linnaeus 1753N10 [=Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Link ex Nees 1820N10, Scytosiphon compressumBS-V28, Solenia compressaBS-V28]

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen 1803 [=Conferva flexuosa Roth 1800 non Müller 1782, Enteromorpha compressa var. flexuosa (Wulfen) Hamel 1931, E. flexuosa (Wulfen) Agardh 1883, E. prolifera var. flexuosa (Wulfen) Doty 1947; incl. E. lingulata Agardh 1883, E. intestinalis var. tubulosa Kützing 1845, E. tubulosa (Kützing) Kützing 1856]N10

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus 1753 [=Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Link in Nees 1820; incl. E. marchantiae Setchell & Gardner 1924]N10

Ulva lobata (Kützing) Harvey 1855 [=Phycoseris lobata Kützing 1847, U. fasciata f. lobata Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1901]N10

Ulva nematoidea Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828 [incl. U. fasciata f. costata Howe 1914, U. costata (Howe) Hollenberg 1971 non Wollny 1881, U. dactylifera Setchell & Gardner 1920, U. fasciata f. taeniata Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1901, U. taeniata (Setchell) Setchell & Gardner 1920]N10

Ulva radiata (Agardh) Hayden, Blomster et al. 2003 [=Enteromorpha radiata Agardh 1883, E. prolifera ssp. radiata (Agardh) Bliding 1963]N10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[KT03] Kalita, T. L., & E. A. Tytlianov. 2003. Effect of temperature and illumination on growth and reproduction of the green alga Ulva fenestrata. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 316–322.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[NLS03] Nelson, T. A., D. J. Lee & B. C. Smith. 2003. Are “green tides” harmful algal blooms? Toxic properties of water-soluble extracts from two bloom-forming macroalgae, Ulva fenestrata and Ulvaria obscura (Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 874–879.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[RA05] Rath, J., & S. P. Adhikary. 2005. A check list of algae from Chilika Lake, Orissa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 101–114.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

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