Umbilicaria

 Umbilicaria leiocarpa, copyright Jason Hollinger.

Belongs within: Lecanoromycetes.
Contains: Umbilicaria section Glabrae, Umbilicaria section Polymorphae, Umbilicaria secton Velleae.

Umbilicaria, rock tripe, is a cosmopolitan genus of saxicolous lichens that derive their name from their attachment to the substrate by a distinct ‘navel’.

Gyrophoropsis is a subgenus of the lichen genus Umbilicaria containing species with relatively large spores.

Characters (from Frey 1933): Thallus foliaceous, navel simple, thin or often divided into several strands, with the base very firmly attached, upper surface smooth or cracked-areolate, often with scaly or sheet-like attachments or protruding ribs. Apothecia sessile on upper surface, occasionally slightly sunk or pressed, often top-shaped, short-stalked, black. Underside of the thallus smooth and hairless or cracked-areolate, with or without rhizines. Rhizines simple or branched or warty, also often reticulate or pitted and with anastomosing discontinuous ribs. More or less radially arranged bars often extending outward from navel. Thallus layered, upper crust usually solid (exceptionally thin), forming a palisade plectenchyma, paraplectenchyma or an almost amorphous-appearing tissue. Gonidia Cytococcus, usually in a continuous or more or less regularly interrupted zone. Hyphae of gonidial zone loose, rarely fused like the rind. Central mass usually loose, rarely dense; lower crust usually similar to top layer, rhizines mostly similarly textured to underside of thallus. Apothecia always without gonidia, often quite black inside or at least partly dark, hypothecium usually at least brownish, hymenium often with a tendency to split. Spores unicellular and hyaline, or 2- to multicellular (forming a brick-like arrangement), hyaline or partially brown. Pycnidia sunk in thallus, but alwayswith a clear, point-like, black crown, pitcher-shaped or pear-shaped, often quite strongly broadened at the base.

Umbilicaria Hoffmann 1789 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy)KC01
    |--U. subg. Gyrophora Endlich 1836F33 [=Gyrophora Acharius 1803F33, Gyrophoromyces Thomas ex Cif. & Tomas 1953KC01]
    |    |--U. sect. GlabraeF33
    |    |--U. sect. PolymorphaeF33
    |    `--U. sect. VelleaeF33
    `--U. subg. Gyrophoropsis (Elenkin & Sav.) Zahlbr. 1927F33 [=Gyrophoropsis Elenkin & Savicz 1910KC01]
         |--U. cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy)F33
         |--U. crustulosa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy)F33
         |    |--U. c. var. crustulosaF33
         |    `--U. c. var. badiofusca Frey 1933F33
         |--U. depressa (Acharius) Duby 1830 [=Gyrophora crustulosa var. depressa Acharius 1810]F33
         |--U. ruebeliana (DR. & Frey) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora ruebeliana DR. & Frey 1929]F33
         |    |--U. r. f. ruebelianaF33
         |    `--U. r. f. rhizinosa Frey 1933F33
         `--U. spodochroa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy)F33
              |--U. s. var. spodochroaF33
              `--U. s. var. lapponica Frey 1933F33
Umbilicaria incertae sedis:
  U. angulataF33
  U. aprina Nyl. 1863L56
    |--U. a var. aprinaL56
    `--U. a. var. halei Llano 1956L56
  U. calvescensF33
  U. dichroaF33
  U. esculentaF33
  U. haplocarpaF33
  U. krempelhuberiF33
  U. mammulataJK06
  U. membranaceaF33
  U. muehlenbergiiF33
  U. nanella Frey & Poelt 1977S03
  U. pennsylvanicaF33
  U. phaeaF33
  U. semitensisF33
  U. yunnanaF33

Umbilicaria Hoffmann 1789 (nom. cons.) [=Umbilicariomyces Cif. & Tomas. 1953; incl. Actinogyra Schol. 1934, Gyromium Wahlenb. 1812, Llanoa Dodge 1968, Merophora Clem. 1909, Omphalodium Rabenh. 1845 non Meyen & Flot. 1843, Omphalosia Neck. ex Kremp. 1869, Parmophora Choisy 1950 non Desmarest 1859 (ICZN); Gyrophoraceae]KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In: Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4 pt 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzi.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O’Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O’Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L56] Llano, G. A. 1956. New Umbilicariaceae from the Western Hemisphere, with a key to genera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (6): 183–185.

[S03] Sinha, G. P. 2003. Additions to the lichen flora of India from Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 221–224.

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