Alder wood wasp Xiphydria camelus, copyright Manuel Valdueza.

Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Apocrita, Siricoidea.

The Unicalcarida are a major clade of wasps characterised by the reduction of the posterior protibial spur. Within this clade, the Vespina are united by a number of synapomorphies including loss of thoracic legs in the larvae, reduction of the larval antenna to a single segment, and accomodation of the adult mesocoxae into metepisternal depressions (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the Vespina are ancestrally parasitic as larvae. The other members of the Unicalcarida, in the Cephoidea, Xiphydriidae and Siricoidea, retain phytophagous larvae. Most Vespina (in the clade Apocrita) have a strong waist between meso- and metasoma but the two tagmata remain broadly connected in the Orussidae.

    |  i. s.: Daohugoa Rasnitsyn & Zhang 2004 [Daohugoidae]RZ04
    |           `--*D. tobiasi Rasnitsyn & Zhang 2004RZ04
    |--Vespina [Ephialtitoidea, Euhymenoptera, Evaniales, Evaniomorpha, Parasitica]BD17
    |    |  i. s.: KaratavitidaeR02
    |    |         EphialtitidaeR02
    |    |           |--Stephanogaster magnaGE05
    |    |           |--Karataus kourios Sharkey in Darling & Sharkey 1990RJ93
    |    |           |--Cratephialtites kouriosGE05
    |    |           `--Sippelipterus liasinus Zessin 1985RJ93
    |    |         Mesomutilla aptera Zhang 1985RJ93
    |    |--ApocritaPK17
    |    `--Orussoidea [Idiogastra]PK17
    |         |--Paroryssidae [Parorysidae]GE05
    |         `--OrussidaeHR11
    |              |--Mesorussus taimyrensisGE05
    |              |--Minyorussus luzziiGE05
    |              |--Guiglia sericataN91
    |              |--Orussobaius wilsoniN91, R70
    |              |--OrussoniaN91
    |              `--Orussus Latreille 1802L02
    |                   |--*O. coronatus Latreille 1802L02
    |                   |--O. abietinusHR11
    |                   |--O. minutusBD17
    |                   |--O. occidentalisHR11
    |                   `--O. unicolorPK17
       |    |--SepulcidaeGE05
       |    `--CephidaeHR11
       |         |--Mesocephus sibiricusZ02
       |         |--Electrocephus stralendorffiP92
       |         |--Hartigia Schioedte 1838HR11, L59
       |         |    `--H. trimaculataHR11
       |         |--Janus Stephens 1835RD77, BR05
       |         |    `--J. integer [incl. J. flaviventris]RD77
       |         `--Cephus Latreille 1802L02
       |              |--*C. pygmaeus [=Sirex pygmaeus]L02
       |              |--C. analisR26
       |              |--C. cinctus [incl. C. occidentalis]RD77
       |              |--C. flavicornis Lucas 1849E12
       |              |--C. idolonR26
       |              |--C. spinipesPK17
       |              `--C. troglodytaR26
          `--Xiphydriidae [Xiphydrioidea]BD17
               |    |--Austrocyrta australiensisN91
               |    `--Derecyrta circularisHR11
                    `--Xiphydria Latreille 1802L02
                         |--*X. camelusL02 [=Cephus (Xiphydra) camelusG20, Sirex camelusL02]
                         |--X. abdominalis [incl. X. attenuata]S96
                         |--X. annulataR26
                         |--X. champlainiS96
                         |--X. dromadariusR26
                         |--X. maculataS96
                         |--X. mellipesS96
                         |--X. prolongataHR11
                         |--X. scafaS96
                         `--X. tibialisS96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L59] Lopes, H. de S. 1959. A revision of Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Studia Ent. 2 (1–4): 33–67.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RZ04] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & H. Zhang. 2004. A new family, Daohugoidae fam. n., of siricomorph hymenopteran (Hymenoptera=Vespida) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia (China). Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society, St. Petersburg 75 (1): 12–16.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in the mid-Atlantic states, with a key to species of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 274–291.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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