Sharpnose sandperch Parapercis cylindrica, copyright Rickard Zerpe.

Belongs within: Percomorpharia.

The Uranoscopiformes are a clade of fishes united by molecular data, many of which were historically treated as ‘trachinoids’.

<==Uranoscopiformes [Paratrachiniformes, Paratrachinoidei]
    |--+--Cheimarrichthys [Cheimarrichthyidae]ND13
    |  |    `--C. fosteri Haast 1874LD09
    |  `--Pinguipedidae [Mugiloididae]ND13
    |       |--Chilias xanthozona (Bleeker 1849) [=Percis xanthozona, Parapercis xanthozona]M58
    |       |--Pinguipes chilensis Valenciennes 1833LD09
    |       |--NeopercisR13
    |       `--Parapercis [Parapercidae]ND13
    |            |--P. allportiSC07
    |            |--P. clathrata Ogilby 1910LD09
    |            |--P. coliasH01
    |            |--P. cylindrica (Bloch 1792) [=Sciaena cylindrica]M58
    |            |--P. fatuus Schwarzhans 1980P93
    |            |--P. finlayi Frost 1924P93
    |            |--P. gilliesiH01
    |            |--P. haackei (Steindachner 1884)H90
    |            |--P. hexophtalma (Cuvier 1829)MM09 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--P. millepunctata (Günther 1860)MM09
    |            |--P. multiplicata Randall 1984MM09
    |            |--P. nebulosa (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)H90 [=Percis nebulosaG75]
    |            |--P. ramsayiSC07
    |            `--P. tetracanthus (Lacépède 1801) [=Labrus tetracanthus; incl. Percis cancellata Günther 1860]M58
       |    |--Kathetostoma averruncusND13
       |    |--Astroscopus y-graecumND13
       |    |--Uranoscopidarum orbis Nolf 1991P93
       |    |--IchthyscopusG75
       |    |    |--I. fasciatusG75
       |    |    `--I. lebeckG75
       |    `--Uranoscopus Linnaeus 1758L58
       |         |--*U. scaber Linnaeus 1758L58
       |         |--U. albesca Regan 1915LD09
       |         `--U. ignavus Schwarzhans 1980P93
       `--Ammodytidae [Ammodytiformes]ND13
            |  i. s.: EmbolichthysR13
            |         Bleekeria callolepisR13
            |--Gymnammodytes semisquamatusLM13
            `--+--Hyperoplus lanceolatusLM13
               `--Ammodytes Linnaeus 1758LM13, L58
                    |--*A. tobianus Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |--A. americanus DeKay 1842N02
                    |--A. cicerellusPP64
                    |--A. dubius Reinhardt 1837N02
                    |--A. hexapterusN02
                    |--A. lanceolatusR13
                    |--A. marinusN02
                    |--A. personatusLN10
                    `--A. vasseuri Nolf & Lapierre 1977P93

Parapercis hexophtalma (Cuvier 1829)MM09 [=Percis hexophthalmusM58, Chilias hexophthalmusM58, Pinguipes didikuar Montrouzier in Thiollière 1857 (n. n.)M58]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[H01] Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31 (1): 135–160.

[H90] Hutchins, J. B. 1990. Fish survey of South Passage, Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 263–278. Western Australian Museum.

[LM13] Lautredou, A.-C., H. Motomura, C. Gallut, C. Ozouf-Costaz, C. Cruaud, G. Lecointre & A. Dettai. 2013. New nuclear markers and exploration of the relationships among Serraniformes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei): the importance of working at multiple scales. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67: 140–155.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LN10] Liu, J., & P. Ning. 2010. Species composition and faunal characteristics of fishes of the Yellow Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 42–43. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[MM09] Moore, G., & S. Morrison. 2009. Fishes of three North West Shelf atolls of Western Australia: Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 221–255.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[N02] Nizinski, M. S. 2002. Sand lances. Family Ammodytidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 496–505. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[R13] Regan, C. T. 1913. The classification of the percoid fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 12: 111–145.

[SC07] Smith, W. L., & M. T. Craig. 2007. Casting the percomorph net widely: the importance of broad taxonomic sampling in the search for the placement of serranid and percid fishes. Copeia 2007 (1): 35–55.

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