Urochordata

Colony of Salpa fusiformis, copyright Mark Rosenstein.

Belongs within: Deuterostomia.
Contains: Enterogona, Pleurogona.

The Urochordata, tunicates, are spineless chordates that possess a notochord and postanal tail in the tadpole-like larval stage but usually loose them when they metamorphose into adults.

Characters (from Miller & Harley 1996): Notochord, nerve cord and postanal tail present in free-swimming larvae; adults sessile or planktonic, usually enclosed in a tunic containing some cellulose.

<==Urochordata
    |  i. s.: Octacnemus [Sorberacea]MH96
    |         Palaeobotryllus taylori Müller 1977B93
    |         Ainiktozoon loganense Scourfield 1937B93
    |--Shankouclava Chen, Huang et al. 2003EL11, CH03
    |    `--*S. anningense Chen, Huang et al. 2003 [=S. shankouense Chen, Huang et al. 2003 (n. n.)]CH03
    `--+--OikopleuraGD00 [AppendiculariaC-S98, Appendiculariae, Larvacea, Oikopleuridae]
       |    |--O. dioicaLG03
       |    |--O. gracilisSD10
       |    |--O. intermediaSD10
       |    |--O. labrodariensisSD10
       |    |--O. longicaudaSD10
       |    |--O. rufescensG90
       |    `--O. vanhoeffeniB26
       `--TunicataC-S98
            |--Thaliacea [Thaliae]C-S98
            |    |  i. s.: Thalia democraticaBN03
            |    |--Pyrosoma [Pyrosomatidae, Pyrosomida]MG-H11
            |    |    |--P. atlanticum Péron 1804MG-H11
            |    |    `--P. spinosumMH96
            |    |--Salpa [Salpida, Salpidae]MG-H11
            |    |    |--S. fusiformisB26
            |    |    |--S. maxima Forskål 1775MG-H11
            |    |    |--S. polycratiaG20
            |    |    |--S. tilesii [incl. Thetis vagina]G20
            |    |    `--S. zonariaB26
            |    `--Doliolidae [Dolioloda]MG-H11
            |         |--Dolioletta gegenbauri (Uljanin 1884)MG-H11
            |         `--DoliolumW01
            |              |--D. denticulatumZS10
            |              |--D. mulleri Krohn 1852W01
            |              `--D. nationalisCGS00
            `--Ascidiacea [Ascidiae]C-S98
                 |  i. s.: Clarelina molucensisRZ03
                 |         PhallusiaCGS00
                 |           |--P. mamillata (Cuvier 1815)LB12
                 |           `--P. nigraB79
                 |         PolyandrocarpaB79
                 |           |--P. graveiB79
                 |           |--P. tinctaB79
                 |           `--P. zorritensisGO78
                 |         Ctenicella appendiculata [incl. C. appendiculata var. korotneffi]PP64
                 |         Distomus variolosusM62
                 |         Asterocarpa coeruleaHS01
                 |         Permosoma tunicatum Jaekel 1918B93
                 |         CynthiaS17
                 |           |--C. intestinalis [=Ascidia (Cynthia) intestinalis]G20
                 |           |--C. luridaS17
                 |           |--C. melocactusH04
                 |           |--C. microcosmus [=Ascidia (Cynthia) microcosmus]G20
                 |           |--C. momus [=Ascidia (Cynthia) momus]G20
                 |           `--C. praeputialisH15
                 |         FragariumS17
                 |           |--F. areolatumS17
                 |           `--F. elegansH04
                 |         Synoecum turgensH04
                 |         Polycyclus cyaneusH04
                 |         Polyclinella azemaiPP64
                 |         Morchallium argusS17
                 |         Leptoclinum durumM01
                 |         Pareugyrioides filholiPG98
                 |--EnterogonaS79
                 `--PleurogonaS79

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Basal deuterostomes (chaetognaths, hemichordates, calcichordates, cephalochordates and tunicates). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 529–535. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BN03] Bourlat, S. J., C. Nielsen, A. E. Lockyer, D. T. J. Littlewood & M. J. Telford. 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature 424: 925–928.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[CGS00] Cameron, C. B., J. R. Garey & B. J. Swalla. 2000. Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97 (9): 4469–4474.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[CH03] Chen, J.-Y., D.-Y. Huang, Q.-Q. Peng, H.-M. Chi, Z.-Q. Wang & M. Feng. 2003. The first tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100 (14): 8314–8318.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G90] Goy, J. 1990. Preliminary observations on the zooplankton of Shark Bay, Western Australia, with emphasis on medusae and description of a new rhizostome jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 107–113. Western Australian Museum.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[LG03] Lancelot, C., & R. Groben. 2003. Meeting report: Regional conference on the ecology and impact assessment of Phaeocystis blooms in the Eastern Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea. Protist 154 (2): 173–176.

[LB12] Luque, Á. A., A. Barrajón, J. M. Remón, D. Moreno & L. Moro. 2012. Marginella glabella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Marginellidae): a new alien species from tropical West Africa established in southern Mediterranean Spain through a new introduction pathway. Marine Biodiversity Records 5: e17.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[M01] M’Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[RZ03] Romanenko, L. A., N. V. Zhukova, M. Rhode, A. M. Lysenko, V. M. Mikhailov & E. Stackebrandt. 2003. Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans sp. nov., a novel marine agarolytic bacterium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 125–131.

[S79] Sabbadin, A. 1979. Colonial structure and genetic patterns in ascidians. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 433–444. Academic Press: London.

[S17] Sars, G. O. 1917. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol. 6. Copepoda. Cyclopoida pts 11–12. Clausidiidae, Lichomolgidae (part). Bergen Museum: Bergen.

[SD10] Savelieva, A. V., & S. S. Dautov. 2010. Taxonomic identification and population density of appendicularian found in Vostok Bay of the Japan Sea (Tunicata, Appendicularia). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 193–200. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[W01] Williamson, D. I. 2001. Larval transfer and the origins of larvae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 111–122.

[ZS10] Zhang, G.-T., S. Sun, Z.-L. Xu & Q.-L. Zhang. 2010. Unexpected dominance of the subtropical copepod Temora turbinata in the temperate Changjiang River estuary and its possible causes. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 100–102. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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