Valvifera

 Male and female of Arcturella dilatata, from here.

Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Mesidoteinae, Idothea.

The Valvifera are a group of aquatic isopods found in both marine and freshwater habitats. They are characterised by having the uropods rotated ventrally to form a branchial chamber enclosing the pleopods (Brandt & Poore 2003).

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Antenna 1 without scale. Mandibular lacinia mobilis present; mandibular molar a cylindrical process with triturative flat end, occasionally obsolete; mandibular palps absent. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others (rarely narrower). Pleonite 6, usually more pleonites, fused to pleotelson, pleonite 1 similar to others (rarely reduced). Pleotelson underside vaulted, branchial chamber defined by ridges along mesial margin of lateral edge. Pleopod 3 endopod roughly triangular (or at least with inner angle sharper than outer). Uropods lateral to margin of pleotelson, peduncle and short rami enclosing pleopods in branchial chamber.

<==Valvifera [Idoteides, Idoteoidea, Idotheoidea]
    |  i. s.: Ronalea Menzies & Bowman 1956MK83
    |         Eusymmerus Richardson 1899MK83
    |--AntarcturusMK83 [AntarcturidaeBP03]
    |--ArcturidesMK83 [ArcturididaeBP03]
    |--AustracturellidaeBP03
    |--HolidoteidaeBP03
    |--PseudidotheidaeBP03
    |--RectarcturidaeBP03
    |--XenarcturellidaeBP03
    |--Saduria [Chaetiliidae]BP03
    |    `--S. entomonBP03
    |--Holognathus [Holognathidae]BP03
    |    `--H. karameaBP03
    |--Arcturidae [Amesopodidae]BP03
    |    |--Thermoarcturus venezuelensis Paul & Menzies 1971MK83
    |    |--DolichisusMK83
    |    |--NeoarcturusMK83
    |    |--PseudarcturellaMK83
    |    |--MicroarcturusMK83
    |    |--Edwinjoycea Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
    |    |    `--*E. horologium Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
    |    |--ArcturusMK83
    |    |    |--A. deshayesii Lucas 1846E12
    |    |    `--A. floridanus Richardson 1900MK83
    |    |--Arcturella Sars 1899MK83
    |    |    |--*A. dilatata (Sars 1882) [=Astacilla dilatata]MK83
    |    |    |--A. bispinata Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
    |    |    `--A. spinata Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
    |    `--AstacillaMK83
    |         |--A. cymodocea Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
    |         |--A. lasallae Paul & Menzies 1971MK83
    |         |--A. lauffi Menzies & Frankenberg 1966MK83
    |         `--A. mediterraneaPP64
    `--IdoteidaeN37
         |  i. s.: CleantisMK83
         |           |--C. planicauda Benedict in Richardson 1899MK83
         |           `--C. tubicolaHS01
         |         Edotea triloba (Say 1818)MK83
         |         Tropedotea Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
         |           `--*T. lyonsi Menzies & Kruczynski 1983MK83
         |         Chiridotea Harger 1878 [=Chiridothea]S00
         |           |--C. arenicola Wigley 1960MK83
         |           |--C. coeca (Say 1818)MK83
         |           |--C. excavata Harper 1974MK83
         |           |--S. sabini (Kröyer 1846) [=Idothea sabini, Chiridothea sabini, Glyptonotus sabini, Idotea sabini]S00
         |           `--C. stenops Menzies & Frankenberg 1966MK83
         |         ErichsonellaMK83
         |           |--E. attenuata (Harger 1873)MK83
         |           |--E. filiformis (Say 1818)MK83
         |           |    |--E. f. filiformisMK83
         |           |    |--E. f. isabelensis Menzies 1951MK83
         |           |    `--E. f. tropicalis Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
         |           `--E. floridana Benedict in Richardson 1901MK83
         |         SynidoteaN37
         |           |--S. angulataH47
         |           |--S. bicuspida [=Edotea bicuspida, Edotia bicuspida]H47
         |           |--S. consolidataH47
         |           |--S. hirtipesN37
         |           |--S. nebulosaH47
         |           |--S. nodulosa [=Edotea nodulosa]H47
         |           |--S. pettiboneae Hatch 1947H47
         |           `--S. ritteriH47
         |         SymmiusN37
         |         ParidoteaN37
         |         PentidoteaN37
         |           |--P. resecataN37 [=Idotaea resecataH47, Idotea resecataH47]
         |           |--P. rotundaN37
         |           |--P. stenopsH47
         |           |--P. whiteiN37 [=Idothea whiteiH47, Idotea whiteiH47]
         |           `--P. wosnesenskiiN37 (see below for synonymy)
         |         SynisomaF05
         |           |--S. albertoi Castellanos & Junoy 2005F05
         |           |--S. appendiculatumPP64
         |           `--S. capitoBBB-S95
         |         Proidotea haugi Racovitza & Sevastos 1910BWW93
         |--MesidoteinaeN37
         |--IdotheaN37
         `--Glyptonotus [Glyptonotinae]N37
              |--G. acutusN37
              `--G. antarcticus Eights 1852FZA07

Pentidotea wosnesenskiiN37 [=Idotaea wosnesenskiiH47, Idotea wossnessenskiiH47; incl. Pentidotea wosnesenskii var. exlineae Hatch 1947H47]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BP03] Brandt, A., & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[N37] Nicholls, G. E. 1937. On the freshwater Idoteidae of New Zealand (Crustacea, Isopoda). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 10, 19: 113–136.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S00] Stebbing, T. R. R. 1900. Arctic Crustacea: Bruce collection. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 1–16.

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