Serpulorbis aff. sipho, copyright Des Beechey.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.

The Vermetidae are a group of sedentary gastropods characterised by an irregularly coiled or contorted shell that is generally cemented to a hard substrate. Plankton is captured from the water column for food, either by filtering water through the gills or by capture with extruded mucous threads.

<==Vermetidae [Vermetimorpha, Vermetina, Vermetinia]
|--Provermicularia circumcarinataTTE93
|--Pseudobrochidium germanicum Grupe 1907TTE93
|--Laxispira Gabb 1877KB99, BR17 [Laxispirinae]
| `--*L. lumbricalis Gabb 1877BR17
|--Magilina Velain 1877P61
| `--*M. scapuliformisP61
|--Burtinella Morch 1861TTE93, B59
| `--B. damesi (Noetlin 1885)TTE93
|--Novastoa Finlay 1927P61 [incl. Siphonium Mörch 1859 non Browne 1789F27]
| |--*N. lamellosa (Hutton 1873) [=Siphonium lamellosum]P61
| `--‘Siphonium’ margaritarum [=Aletes margaritarum]C64
| |--V. effusus [=Siphonium effusus, Vermetus effusus]C64
| `--V. pellucidusC64 (see below for synonymy)
|--‘Aletes’ Carpenter 1857 non Rafinesque 1815O27
| |--*A. carinatus [=Vermetus carinatus]O27
| `--A. centiquadrus (Valenciennes 1846)O27 (see below for synonymy)
| |--T. cruciformis [incl. T. cruciformis var. erythrosclera, T. cruciformis var. lumbricella]C64
| |--T. decussatusC64
| |--T. oryzata [incl. T. oryzata var. annulata]C64
| `--T. rueseiC64
|--Spiroglyphus Daudin 1800O27
| |--*S. annulatus (Daudin 1800)O27, IZ77 [=Vermetus annulatusO27]
| |--S. albidus [=Bivonia albida]C64
| |--S. cristatus [=Vermetus cristatus]PP64
| |--S. irregularis (d’Orbigny 1842)HW78
| `--S. lituellus Mörch 1861O27
|--Bivonia Gray 1850O27
| |--*B. triquetraO27 [=B. sutilis var. triquetraC64]
| |--B. compacta Carpenter 1864O27
| |--B. contortaC64
| |--B. glomerataO27
| |--B. quoyi [incl. B. quoyi var. variegata]C64
| `--B. sutilis [incl. B. sutilis var. major]C64
|--Dendropoma Mörch 1861BR05 [incl. Veristoa Iredale 1937W93, Veritoma Kuroda 1928W93; Dendropomatinae, Dendropominae]
| |--*D. lituella (Mörch 1861)BR17 [=Siphonium lituellaBR17; incl. Stoa ammonitiformisC64]
| |--D. corallinaceum (Tomlin 1939)H78
| |--*Veristoa’ howensis Iredale 1937W93
| |--D. irregulareH79
| |--D. lamellosaBK00
| |--*Veritoma’ luchuanumW93
| |--D. maximum (Sowerby 1825)W93
| |--D. megamastum (see below for synonymy)C64
| |--D. petraeumH79
| |--D. platypus (Morch 1861)W93
| `--D. tholia Keen & Morton 1960H78
|--Petaloconchus Lea 1843O27
| | i. s.: P. anellum (Mörch 1861)O27 [=Vermetis anellumO27, Vermetus (Strebloceras) anellumC64, Vermiculum anellumO27]
| | P. complicatus Dall 1908O27
| | P. montereyensis Dall 1919O27
| | P. nigricans (Dall 1884)IZ77
| | P. renisectus Carpenter 1857WBS-S15
| |--*P. (Petaloconchus) sculpturatus [=Vermetus sculpturatus]O27
| |--P. (Anguinella) virginica (Conrad 1839)P12
| `--P. (Macrophragma Carpenter 1857)W93
| |--P. (*M.) macrophragma Carpenter 1857W93, O27 [=Vermetus (M.) macrophragmaC64]
| |--P. (M.) cochlidium Carpenter 1857W93
| `--P. (M.) nerinaeoides Carpenter 1857W93
|--Vermetus Daudin 1800 [Vermetinae]BR05
| | i. s.: V. alliiH79
| | V. arenariusPP64
| | V. grandisC60
| | V. lyngbyanusN79
| | V. moniliferusH86
| | V. nielseni Bandel & Kiel 2000BK00
| | V. pellucidus Broderip & Sowerby 1829BS29
| | V. planorbisK10
| | V. spiratusC60
| | V. triqueter [incl. V. triqueter f. gregarius]PP64
| |--*V. (Vermetus) adansonii Daudin 1800BR17
| `--V. (Thylacodus Mörch 1860)W93
| `--V. (*T.) contortusW93 (see below for synonymy)
|--Ceraesignum maximum (Sowerby 1825)WBS-S15
|--Eualetes tulipa (Rousseau in Chenu 1843)WBS-S15
`--Serpulorbis Sassi 1827 [Polyphragmata]H78
| i. s.: S. aotearoicus Morton 1951P61
| S. constrictor Mörch 1862W93
| S. decussatus (Gmelin 1791)S11
| S. granifera (Say 1824)P12
| S. hedleyi Finlay 1927W93
| S. imbricataZLK11
| S. lornensis Marwick 1926F27
| S. maorianus (Powell 1937)P61
| S. natalensis (Mörch 1862)H78
| S. squamigerus (Carpenter 1857)H78 (see below for synonymy)
| S. watei Hedley 1903W93
| S. zelandicus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)P61
|--S. (Serpulorbis)W93
| |--S. (S.) arenaria [incl. *S. polyphragma]W93
| |--S. (S.) aureus Hughes 1978H78
| |--S. (S.) novaehollandiae (Rousseau per Cotton Chenu 1843)W93
| `--S. (S.) sipho (Lamarck 1818)W93 [=Vermicularia siphoF27]
`--S. (Cladopoda Gray 1850)W93
|--S. (*C.) grandisW93
|--‘Cladopoda’ directaH79
`--‘Cladopoda’ moniliferaH79

Aletes centiquadrus (Valenciennes 1846)O27 [=Vermetus centiquadrusO27; incl. V. (Aletes) centiquadrus var. bridgesiiC64, V. (A.) centiquadrus var. maximaC64, V. panamensisC64, V. peroniiC64, V. (Aletes) centiquadrus var. siphonataC64, V. (A.) centiquadrus var. tulipaC64]

Dendropoma megamastum [=Siphonium (Dendropoma) megamastum; incl. S. (D.) megamastum var. centiquadra, Aletes centiquadrus var. imbricatus]C64

Serpulorbis squamigerus (Carpenter 1857)H78 [=Aletes squamigerusC64, Thylacodes squamigeraC64; incl. T. squamigera var. pennataC64]

Vermetus (*Thylacodus) contortusW93 [incl. V. (T.) contortus var. contortulaC64, V. (T.) contortus var. corrodensC64, V. (T.) contortus var. favosaC64, V. (T.) contortus var. indentataC64, V. (T.) contortus var. repensC64]

Vermiculus pellucidusC64 [incl. Vermi. pellucidus var. castaneaC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. cinnamominaC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. crassaC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. disciferC64, Vermetus eburneus Reeve 1842C64, R42, Vermetus glomeratusC64, Vermetus hindsiiC64, Vermiculus pellucidus var. laquearisC64, Vermetus lumbricalisC64, Serpula panamensisC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. planorboidesC64, Serpula regularisC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. tigrinaC64, Vermi. pellucidus var. volubilisC64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK00] Bandel, K., & S. Kiel. 2000. Earliest known (Campanian) members of the Vermetidae, Provannidae and Litiopidae (Cerithioidea, Gastropoda), and a discussion of their possible relationships. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 84: 209–218.

[B59] Boreham, A. U. E. 1959. Cretaceous fossils from the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 119–125.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BS29] Broderip, W. J., & G. B. Sowerby. 1829. Observations on new or interesting Mollusca contained, for the most part, in the Museum of the Zoological Society. Zoological Journal 4: 359–379, pl. 9.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[Ha79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to sympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[H78] Hughes, R. N. 1978. A new species of Serpulorbis (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) from South Africa. Veliger 20 (3): 288–291.

[Hu79] Hughes, R. N. 1979. Coloniality in Vermetidae (Gastropoda). In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 243–253. Academic Press: London.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[IZ77] Ingham, R. E., & J. A. Zischke. 1977. Prey preferences of carnivorous intertidal snails in the Florida Keys. Veliger 20 (1): 49–51.

[KB99] Kiel, S., & K. Bandel. 1999. The Pugnellidae, a new stromboidean family (Gastropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1–2): 47–58.

[K10] Kostina, E. E. 2010. Distribution of macrobenthic communities in the intertidal zone of the Vietnamese islands. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 109–111. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt. 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R42] Reeve, L. 1842. Descriptions of new species of shells figured in the ‘Conchologia Systematica’. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 197–200.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *