Vetigastropoda

 Temnotropis carinata, from Knight et al. (1960).

Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Seguenziidae, Chilodontaidae, Eucyclidae, Pleurotomarioidea, Porcellioidea, Pseudophoridae, Planitrochidae, Ptychomphalidae, Murchisoniidae, Plethospiridae, Gosseletinidae, Luciellidae, Eotomariinae, Neilsoniinae, Lepetelloidea, Fissurellidae, Lepetodriloidea, Scissurellidae, Anatomidae, Haliotis, Holopeidae, Proconulidae, Microdomatidae, Trochidae, Ataphridae, Angariidae, Arene, Conradiidae, Margaritidae, Skeneidae, Liotiidae, Nododelphinulidae, SolariellaMinoliaSpectamen, Anomphalinae, Pycnomphalinae, Turbininae, Calliostomatinae, Margarella, Colloniinae, Crossostomatinae, Phasianella, Tricolia, Tegula (Chlorostoma), Tegula (Omphalius).

The Vetigastropoda are a major clade within the gastropods that contains the greater part of the paraphyletic ‘Archaeogastropoda’ of older classifications. Living members of the clade do not undergo a planktotrophic stage in the life cycle, and have a paucispiral protoconch (Bouchet et al. 2005). Many vetigastropods have a nacreous inner layer to the shell. Specialised epipodial sensory organs are present on the foot.

The shell of many vetigastropods bears an exhalant opening in the form of a slit or selenizone. The Pleurotomariida are primarily fossil forms, represented in the modern fauna only by members of the Pleurotomariidae. Members of the Lepetellida have few-whorled shells with a more or less expanded aperture, with the shell becoming entirely limpet-like in some lineages. The Scissurelloidea bear low shells with only a thin inner nacreous layer, a slit or hole on the outer lip, and a round, multispiral operculum (Knight et al. 1960).

Members of the Trochoidea lack any trace of an exhalant slit. They have a single ctenidium whereas Pleurotomariida and Lepetellida have paired ctenidia albeit with the right ctenidium variously reduced (Knight et al. 1960). The Trochoidea have historically been divided between superfamilies Trochoidea and Turbinoidea on the basis of whether the operculum is corneous or calcareous, respectively, but this division is not currently supported. The Seguenzioidea, small to medium-sized deep-sea vetigastropods, resemble Trochoidea in the presence of a single ctenidium but retain a number of plesiomorphic characters such as the presence of separate epipodial and sensory-organ bearing tentacles on the foot (in Trochoidea, the epipodial sensory organs are borne directly on the epipodial tentacles).

<==Vetigastropoda (see below for synonymy)
|--PleurotomariidaBR17
| |--PleurotomarioideaGO06
| |--PorcellioideaBR17
| |--Sinuspira Perner 1907KC60 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--*S. tenera Barrande 1907BR17 [=Murchisonia (*Sinuspira) teneraKC60]
| |--Pseudophoroidea [Pseudophoracea]BR17
| | |--PseudophoridaeBR17
| | `--PlanitrochidaeBR17
| |--PtychomphaloideaBR17
| | |--PtychomphalidaeBR17
| | `--Rhaphistomella Kittle 1891KC60 [=Raphistomella Diener 1926KC60; RhaphistomellidaeBR17]
| | |--*R. radians (Wissmann 1841) [=Pleurotomaria radians]BR17
| | `--R. subdecussata [=Pleurotomaria subdecussata]G31
| |--SchizogonioideaBR17
| | |--Schizogonium Koken 1889 [Schizogoniidae]BR05
| | | `--*S. scalare (Münster 1841) [=Pleurotomaria scalaris]KC60
| | `--Pseudowortheniella Bandel 2009 [Pseudowortheniellidae]BR17
| | `--*P. rarissima (Kittl 1891) [=Worthenia rarissima]BR17
| |--Murchisonioidea [Murchisoniacea, Murchisoniina]BR17
| | |--MurchisoniidaeBR05
| | |--PlethospiridaeBR17
| | |--Farewellia Frýda & Blodgett 2004FB04 [FarewelliidaeBR17]
| | | `--*F. heidelbergerae Frýda & Blodgett 2004FB04
| | `--Ptychocaulus Perner 1907KC60 [PtychocaulidaeBR17]
| | `--*P. verneuili (Barrande 1907) [=Murchisonia verneuili]BR17
| `--EotomarioideaBR17
| | i. s.: Devonorhineoderma orbignyanaF12
| | ZlichomphalinaF12
| |--GosseletinidaeBR05
| |--LuciellidaeBR05
| |--Pseudoschizogonium Kutassy 1937KC60 [PseudoschizogoniidaeBR17]
| | `--*P. turriculatum Kutassy 1937KC60
| |--Wortheniella Schwardt 1992B00 [WortheniellidaeBR17]
| | `--*W. coralliophila (Kittl 1891) [=Worthenia coralliophila]BR17
| |--PhanerotrematidaeBR05
| | |--Brachytomaria Koken 1925KC60
| | | `--*B. baltica (Verneuil 1845)KC60, TTE93 [=Pleurotomaria balticaKC60]
| | `--Phanerotrema Fischer 1885BR05
| | |--*P. labrosum (Hall 1860) [=Pleurotomaria labrosa]KC60
| | |--P. austrralis Etheridge 1891F71
| | `--P. ornatum Sayre 1930TTE93
| `--Eotomariidae [Eotomacea]KC60
| | i. s.: Zhonghuaspira Pan & Erwin 2002PE02
| | |--*Z. gibbicircella (Wang & Xi 1980) [=Guizhouspira gibbicircella]PE02
| | `--Z. gibbicircelloides (Wang 1982) [=Guizhouspira gibbicircelloides]PE02
| | Quadricarina Blodgett & Johnson 1992FB04
| | |--Q. (Quadricarina)FB04
| | | |--*Q. (Q.) glabrobasis Blodgett & Johnson 1992FB04
| | | |--Q. (Q.) lenticularis (Goldfuss 1844) [=Pleurotomaria lenticularis]FB04
| | | `--Q. (Q.) noklebergi Frýda & Blodgett 2004FB04
| | `--Q. (Blodgettina) reticulata Frýda 2000FB04
| | Paraoehlertia Frýda 1998FB04
| | `--*P. parva Frýda 1998FB04
| | Balbinipleura Bandel & Frýda 1996FB04
| | |--*B. bohemica Bandel & Frýda 1996FB04
| | |--B. koninckii Bandel & Frýda 1996FB04
| | |--B. krawczynskii Frýda & Blodgett 2004FB04
| | `--B. sextalineata Heidelberger 2001FB04
| | Ulrichospira Donald 1905FB04
| | `--*U. similis Donald 1905KC60
| | Kersadiella Blodgett, Frýda & Racheboeuf 1999FB04
| | Lacunospira Batten 1958KC60
| | `--*L. alta Batten 1958KC60
| |--EotomariinaeBR05
| `--NeilsoniinaeBR05
`--+--+--Bathymargarites symplectorGO06
| `--LepetellidaBR17
| | i. s.: LepetelloideaBR17
| |--FissurellidaeGO06
| `--+--+--LepetodriloideaGO06
| | `--ScissurelloideaBR05
| | |--ScissurellidaeGO06
| | |--AnatomidaeBR05
| | `--Larochea Finlay 1927BR05 [LarocheidaeBR17, Larocheinae]
| | |--*L. miranda Finlay 1927P61
| | `--L. secunda Powell 1937P61
| `--Haliotoidea [Haliotacea]BR05
| |--Haliotidae [Haliotidia, Haliotinae]BR05
| | |--HaliotisGO06
| | `--Chelinotus Swainson 1840 [Chelinoti]BR05
| `--Temnotropis Laube 1868 [Temnotropidae]BR05
| |--*T. carinata (Münster 1841) [=Sigaretus carinatus]KC60
| |--T. bicarinata Laube 1869TTE93
| |--T. costellata Gemmellaro 1890W63a
| `--T. transitoria Gemmellaro 1890W63a
`--Trochoidea [Calliostomatoidei, Ciliipedata, Microdomatacea, Microdomatoidea, Trochida, Turbinoidea]PL96
| i. s.: ‘Fossarus’ dixoni Wrigley 1942TTE93
| Semisolarium Cossmann 1915BS00
|--HolopeidaePE02
|--ProconulidaeBR05
|--MicrodomatidaeBR05
|--TrochidaeBR05
|--AtaphridaeMCS96
|--AngariidaeBR17
|--AreneBR17
|--ConradiidaeBR17
|--MargaritidaeBR17
|--SkeneidaeBR17
|--LiotiidaeBR05
|--NododelphinulidaeBR17
|--Tychobrahea Horný 1992 [Tychobraheidae]BR05
| `--*T. aerumnans Horný 1992BR17
|--Eucochlis Knight 1933 [Eucochlidae]BR05
| `--*E. perminuta Knight 1933KC60
|--Velainella Vasseur 1880BR05 [=Velainiella (l. c.)KC60; VelainellidaeBR05, Velainellinae, Vellainelloidea]
| `--*V. columnaris Vasseur 1880KC60
|--Araeonema Knight 1933KC60 (see below for synonymy)
| `--*A. virgatum Knight 1933KC60
|--Epulotrochus Cossmann 1918KC60 [EpulotrochidaeBR17]
| `--*E. epulus (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Trochus epulus]KC60
|--Sclarotrarda Gründel, Keupp & Lang 2017 [Sclarotrardidae]BR17
| `--*S. coronilla (Brösamlen 1909) [=Liotia coronilla]BR17
|--Metriomphalus Cossmann 1918 [Metriomphalidae]BR17
| |--*M. davoustii (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Turbo davoustii]BR17
| |--M. segregatus (Hébert & Eudes-Deslongchamps 1860)GK02
| `--M. textorius (Broili 1907)TTE93
|--Solariellidae [Solariellinae]BR05
| |--SolariellaBR05
| |--MinoliaH92
| |--SpectamenW93
| `--Cidarina Dall 1909KC60
| `--*C. cidaris (Carpenter 1864)KC60 [=Margarita cidarisKC60, Margarites cidarisO27]
|--ElasmonematidaeBR05
| |--Elasmonema Fischer 1885BR05 [=Callonema Hall 1879 non Conrad 1875KC60]
| | `--*E. bellatulum (Hall 1861) [=Loxonema bellatulum, *Callonema bellatulum]KC60
| |--Anematina Knight 1933B79
| | `--*A. proutana (Hall 1858)B79 [=Holopea proutanaKC60]
| |--Streptotrochus Perner 1907KC60
| | `--*S. rugulosus Perner 1907KC60
| `--Discordichilus Cossmann 1918KC60
| `--*D. mollis (Lindström 1884) [=Trochus mollis]KC60
|--Anomphalidae [Anomphalacea, Anomphaloidea]P84
| | i. s.: Cycloscena Fletcher 1958W63b
| | |--*C. anomphala Fletcher 1958W63b
| | |--C. costata Waterhouse 1963W63b
| | |--C. glabra Waterhouse 1963W63b
| | `--‘Pleurotomaria’ rotunda Etheridge 1872 [=Platyschisma rotunda]W63b
| | Eiselia Dietz 1911P84
| | `--*E. dyadica Dietz 1911KC60
| |--AnomphalinaeP84
| `--PycnomphalinaeP84
|--Turbinidae [Astylophthalma]BR17
| | i. s.: Natiria de Koninck 1881TE01 [incl. Fritschia Picard 1904KC60]
| | |--*N. lirata (Phillips 1836) [=Natica lirata]TE01
| | `--N. costataTE01
| | Pterocheilos Moore 1867 [=Mooria Cossmann 1899, Tinochilus Fischer 1885]KC60
| | `--*P. primus Moore 1867 [=*Mooria prima, *Tinochilus primus]KC60
| |--TurbininaeBR05
| |--Moreanellus Fischer & Weber 1997 [Moreanellinae]BR05
| | `--*M. moreanus (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Trochus moreanus]BR17
| `--Prisogaster Mörch 1850BR05 [=Amyxa Troschel 1852KC60; Prisogasterinae, PrisogastrinaeBR05]
| `--*P. niger (Wood 1828) [=Turbo niger, *Amyxa nigra]KC60
|--CalliostomatidaeBR17
| |--CalliostomatinaeBR17
| |--MargarellaBR17
| |--Callotrochus Kutassy 1938BR17 [=Mesotrochus Kutassy 1927 non Wasmann 1890KC60; CallotrochinaeBR17]
| | `--*C. triadicus (Kutassy 1927) [=Trochus triadicus, *Mesotrochus triadicus]BR17
| |--Fautrix Marshall 1995BR05 [FautricinaeBR17, Fautricini]
| | `--*F. candida Marshall 1995BR17
| |--Thysanodonta Marshall 1988BR05 [Thysanodontidae, ThysanodontinaeBR17]
| | `--*T. aucklandica Marshall 1988BR17
| `--Xeniostoma McLean 2012 [Xeniostomatinae]BR17
| `--*X. inexpectans McLean 2012BR17
|--ColloniidaeBR17
| |--ColloniinaeBR05
| |--CrossostomatinaeBR17
| |--Lewisiella Stoliczka 1868KC60 [LewisiellinaeBR17]
| | `--*L. conica (d’Orbigny 1853) [=Pitonnillus conicus]BR17
| |--Liotipoma McLean & Kiel 2007 [Liotipomatinae]BR17
| | `--*L. wallisensis McLean & Kiel 2007BR17
| |--Petropoma Gabb 1877BR05 [PetropomatinaeBR17, Petropominae]
| | |--*P. peruanum Gabb 1877KC60
| | `--P. biroensis Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000BS00
| `--Moelleria Jeffreys 1865 non Scop. 1777 (ICBN)BR05 [MoelleriinaeBR17]
| |--*M. costulata (Möller 1842)KC60 [=Margarita costulataKC60, Cyclostrema costulatumJ64]
| |--M. drusiana Dall 1919O27
| |--M. laevigata Jeffreys in Friele 1875N79
| `--M. quadrae Dall 1897O27
|--Phasianellidae [Phasianelloidea]BR05
| | i. s.: Pseudophasianus Cossmann 1918KC60
| | `--*P. elatus (Fuchs 1870) [=Turbo elatus]KC60
| |--PhasianellaBR05
| |--GabrieloninaeBR05
| | |--EugabrielonaBR05
| | `--Gabrielona Iredale 1917BR05
| | |--*G. nepeanensis (Gatliff & Gabriel 1908) [=Phasianella nepeanensis]KC60
| | |--G. pisinna Robertson 1973W93
| | `--G. raunana Ladd 1966W93
| `--Tricoliinae [Tricoliidae]BR05
| |--TricoliaBR05
| `--Eulithidium Pilsbry 1898KC60
| |--E. dianthum (McLean 1970) [=Tricolia diantha]BC01
| |--E. luridum (Dall 1897) [=Eucosmia lurida, Phasianella (Eulithidium) lurida]O27
| |--E. pterocladicum (Robertson 1958) [=Tricolia affinis pterocladica]BC01
| |--E. substriatum (Carpenter 1864) [=Eucosmia substriata, Phasianella (Eulithidium) substriata]O27
| `--E. typicum (Dall 1908) (see below for synonymy)O27
`--Tegula Lesson 1832BR05 [TegulidaeBR17, Tegulinae, Tegulini]
| i. s.: T. excavata (Lamarck 1822)HW78
| T. fasciataWE63
| T. ‘lugubris’ (Philippi 1844) [=Trochus lugubris non Gmelin 1791]F27
| T. ovallei (Philippi 1887) [=Trochus ovallei, Tr. (Ziziphinus) ovallei, Turbo ovallei]BS00
|--T. (Tegula)BR17
| |--*T. (T.) elegans Lesson 1832BR17
| `--T. (T.) pellisserpentis (Wood 1828)KC60 [=Trochus pellisserpentisKC60; incl. T. strigilatusC64]
|--T. (Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison 1953)KC60
| |--T. (*A.) viridula (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus viridulus]KC60
| |--T. (A.) corteziana McLean 1970BC01
| |--T. (A.) felipensis McLean 1970BC01
| |--T. (A.) picta McLean 1970BC01
| `--T. (A.) verrucosa McLean 1970BC01
|--T. (Chlorostoma)KC60
|--T. (Omphalius)KC60
`--T. (Promartynia Dall 1909)KC60
`--T. (*P.) pulligo (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus pulligo]KC60
|--T. p. pulligoO27
`--T. p. taylori Oldroyd 1922O27

Vetigastropoda incertae sedis:
Micromphalus Knight 1945KC60 [MicromphalidaeBR17]
`--*M. turris Knight 1945KC60
Seguenzioidea [Seguenziida, Seguenziiformes, Seguenziina, Seguenzinina]PL96
|--SeguenziidaeBR05
|--ChilodontaidaeBR05
|--EucyclidaeBR17
|--Laubella Kittl 1891 [Laubellidae]BR05
| `--*L. delicata (Laube 1868) [=Pleurotomaria delicata]KC60
|--Eudaronia Cotton 1945 [Eudaroniidae, Eudaroniinae]BR17
| `--*E. jaffaensis (Verco 1909) [=Cyclostrema jaffaensis]BR17
|--Lanascala Bandel 1992BR05 [LanascalidaeBR17]
| `--*L. cassiana Bandel 1992BR17
|--Pseudoturcica Bandel 2010 [Pseudoturcicidae]BR17
| `--*P. wareni (Kaim 2004) [=Turcica wareni]BR17
|--Sabrinella Bandel 1993 [Sabrinellidae]BR17
| `--*S. doris (Laube 1869) [=Delphinula doris]BR17
|--Cataegis McLean & Quinn 1987BR05 [CataegidaeBR17, Cataeginae]
| |--*C. toreuta McLean & Quinn 1987BR17
| `--C. meroglypta McLean & Quinn 1987BR05
|--Choristellidae [Choristellinae]BR17
| |--BichoristesBR05
| `--Choristella Bush 1897BR05
| `--*C. leptalea Bush 1897BR17
|--Eucycloscala Cossmann 1895PE02 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*E. binodosa (Münster 1841) [=Trochus binodosus]KC60
| |--E. asiatica Batten 1985PE02
| `--E. medionodosus Batten 1985PE02
|--Eunemopsis Kittl 1891TE01 [EunemopsidaeBR17]
| |--*E. epaphus (Laube 1869) [=Turbo epaphus]TE01
| |--E. dolomitica Kittl 1891TE01
| `--E. praecurrensTE01
|--PendromidaeBR17
| |--RugulinaC96
| `--Pendroma Dall 1927BR05
| `--*P. perplexa Dall 1927BR17
`--Trochaclididae [Trochaclidoidea]BR17
|--Trochaclis Thiele 1912 [Trochaclidinae]BR05
| `--*T. antarctica Thiele 1912BR17
`--Acremodonta Marshall 1983 [Acremodontinae]BR05
`--*A. crassicosta (Powell 1937) [=Thoristella crassicosta]BR17
Spirotomaria Koken 1925KC60
`--*S. rudissima (Koken 1897) [=Pleurotomaria rudissima]KC60
Ptychozone Perner 1907KC60
`--*P. aberrans (Perner 1903) [=Worthenia aberrans]KC60
Platyconus Perner 1907KC60
`--*P. incumbens (Perner 1907) [=Pleurotomaria (*Platyconus) incumbens]KC60
Gyroma Oehlert 1888KC60
`--*G. baconnierensis (Oehlert 1888) [=Pleurotomaria baconnierensis]KC60
Trachybembix Böhm 1895 [=Trachybembyx Diener 1916]KC60
`--*T. junonis (Kittl 1894) [=Pleurotomaria junonis]KC60
Transylvanella Kutassy 1937KC60
`--*T. acmaeiformis Kutassy 1937KC60

Nomen nudum: Callonema elevatumTTE93

Araeonema Knight 1933KC60 [incl. Palaeoturbina Wenz 1938KC60, Turbina deKoninck 1881 non Brown in Herrmannsen 1847KC60; AraeonematidaeBR17]

Eucycloscala Cossmann 1895PE02 [incl. Trochoscala Koken 1897KC60, Urceolabrum Wade 1917KC60; Eucycloscalidae, Eucycloscalinae]

Eulithidium typicum (Dall 1908) [=Phasianela (Eulithidium) typica, Eucosmia variegata Carpenter 1864 non P. variegata Lamarck 1822]O27

Sinuspira Perner 1907KC60 [incl. Morania Horny 1953 non Walcott 1919KC60; Sinuspiridae, Sinuspirina, SinuspiroideaBR17]

Vetigastropoda [Amberleyacea, Amberleyata, Amberleyoidea, Astylacea, Auriformes, Aristerobranchia, Choristelloidei, Ctenidiobranchia, Fissibranchiata, Fissurelloidei, Haliotoideae, Haliotoidei, Pleurotomariacea, Pleurotomariina, Zeugobranchia, Zygobranchia]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00] Bandel, K. 2000. The new family Cortinellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) connected to a review of the evolutionary history of the subclass Neritimorpha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 217 (1): 111–129.

[BS00] Bandel, K., & W. Stinnesbeck. 2000. Gastropods of the Quiriquina Formation (Maastrichtian) in central Chile: paleobiogeographic relationships and the description of a few new taxa. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I 7–8: 757–788.

[B79] Batten, R. L. 1979. Gastropods from Perak, Malaysia. Part 2. The trochids, patellids and neritids. American Museum Novitates 2685: 1–26.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[FB04] Frýda, J., & R. B. Blodgett. 2004. New Emsian (Late Early Devonian) gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell Terrane), and their paleobiogeographic affinities and evolutionary significance. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 111–132.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H92] Herbert, D. G. 1992. Revision of the Umboniinae in southern Africa and Mozambique (Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Trochidae). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 379–459.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to fsympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MCS96] Monari, S., M. A. Conti & J. Szabó. 1996. Evolutionary systematics of Jurassic Trochoidea: the family Colloniidae and the subfamily Proconulidae. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 199–204. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PE02] Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. Journal of Paleontology 76 (Memoir 56): 1–49.

[P84] Peel, J. S. 1984. Autecology and systematics of a new Silurian anomphalid gastropod from western North Greenland. Rapp. Grønlands geol. Unders. 121: 77–87.

[PL96] Ponder, W. F., & D. R. Lindberg. 1996. Gastropod phylogeny—challenges for the 90s. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 135–154. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WE63] Warmke, G. L., & D. S. Erdman. 1963. Records of marine mollusks eaten by bonefish in Puerto Rican waters. Nautilus 76 (4): 115–120.

[W63a] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963a. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 2—Pleurotomariacea (in part). New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (2): 115–154.

[W63b] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963b. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 4—Platyceratacea, Anomphalacea, Neritacea, and correlations. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (5): 817–842.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *