Viola capillaris, copyright Mildred Ehrenfeld.

Belongs within: Violaceae.
Contains: Viola section Viola.

Viola, the violets, is a cosmopolitan genus of mostly herbaceous plants bearing bilateral flowers with the lowest petal basally pouched or spurred.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial <35 cm, glabrous to hairy. Leaf entire to compound. Flowers generally solitary, axillary. Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur. Fruit a capsule, ovoid to oblong.

<==Viola Linnaeus 1753 [Violoideae]A61
|--V. (sect. Rubellium) capillarisBS00
`--+--V. (sect. Leptidium) scandensBS00
`--+--V. (sect. Chilenium) reicheiBS00
`--+--V. (sect. Andinium) micranthellaBS00
`--V. sect. ViolaBS00

Viola incertae sedis:
V. adunca [incl. V. adunca var. kirkii, V. adunca var. oxyceras]H93
V. alata [incl. V. verecunda]B17
V. apetala Roxb. 1824 (see below for synonymy)B17
| i. s.: V. ‘inconspicua’ var. hirtella Oudem. 1867B17
|--V. a. ssp. apetalaB17
`--V. ‘inconspicua’ ssp. dielsiana Becker 1916B17
V. arenataDD73
V. aureaH93
V. bakeri [incl. V. bakeri var. grandis (nom. illeg.), V. bakeri var. shastensis]H93
V. betonicifolia Sm. 1819 [=V. betonicaefolia]B17
|--V. b. ssp. betonicifoliaB17
|--V. b. ssp. australensis Becker 1917 (see below for synonymy)B17
`--V. b. ssp. nepalensis (Ging.) Becker 1917 (see below for synonymy)B17
V. bifloraT77
V. caleyanaH90
V. chinensis Don 1831 [=V. patrinii var. chinensis Ging. in DC. 1824]B17
V. cleistogamoides [=V. hederacea ssp. cleistogamoides]H90
V. collinaW17
V. cunninghamii Hooker 1852 (see below for synonymy)A61
V. cyaneaW17
V. declinataH09
V. diffusaDD73
V. douglasiiH93
V. filicaulis Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy)A61
V. glabellaH93 [=V. hirta var. glabella Regel 1861B17; incl. V. californicaH93]
V. halliiH93
V. hederaceaC08
|--V. h. ssp. hederaceaH90
`--V. h. ssp. fuscoviolaceaH90
V. hirtaW17
V. japonicaB17
V. kashmiriana Becker 1917 [incl. V. patrinii var. suaveolens Watt 1881]B17
V. keiskeiB17
|--V. k. ssp. keiskeiB17
`--V. k. ssp. transmaritimaB17
V. kitaibelianaD37
V. kosaniniiGR98
V. limprichtiana Becker 1917B17
V. lobataH93
|--V. l. ssp. lobata [incl. V. lobata ssp. psychodes]H93
`--V. l. ssp. integrifoliaH93
V. lyallii Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy)A61
V. macroceras Bunge 1828 (see below for synonymy)B17
V. maculataD03
V. mandshurica Becker 1917 (see below for synonymy)B17
V. ocellataH93
V. palmataJ23
V. palustrisH93
V. patrinii DC. 1824B17
|--V. p. var. patriniiB17
`--V. p. var. subsagittata Maximowicz 1859B17
V. pedunculata [incl. V. pedunculata var. tenuifolia]H93
V. phalacrocarpa Maxim. 1876 [incl. V. conilii Franch. & Sav. 1879]B17
|--V. p. var. phalacrocarpaB17
`--V. p. var. glaberrima Becker 1917B17
V. philippicaB17
|--V. p. ssp. philippicaB17
|--V. p. ssp. malesica Becker 1917 [incl. V. confusa Champ. ex Benth. 1851]B17
`--V. p. ssp. munda Becker 1916B17
|--V. p. ssp. m. var. mundaB17
`--V. p. ssp. m. var. gurhwalensis Becker 1917B17
V. pinetorum [incl. V. purpurea ssp. xerophyta]H93
|--V. p. ssp. pinetorum [incl. V. purpurea ssp. mesophyta]H93
`--V. p. ssp. griseaH93
V. primulifolia Lour. 1790B17
|--V. p. ssp. primulifoliaH93
`--V. p. ssp. occidentalis [=V. lanceolata ssp. occidentalis]H93
V. prionantha Bunge 1831B17
|--V. p. ssp. prionanthaB17
`--V. p. ssp. jaunsariensis Becker 1917B17
V. rubellaBS00
V. semilunarisB17
V. sempervirensH93
V. sieberianaH90
V. sororiaH93
V. stipularisBS00
V. tomentosaH93
V. tricolorJK80
V. tridentataD03
V. × wittrockianaMH98

Viola apetala Roxb. 1824 [incl. V. inconspicua Blume 1825, V. mysorensis Wall. 1828 (n. n.), V. roxburghiana Voigt 1845, V. patrinii var. triangularis Franch. & Sav. 1879, V. trinervis Korth. 1848]B17

Viola betonicifolia ssp. australensis Becker 1917 [incl. V. gunnii (n. n.), V. longiscapa DC. ex Don 1831, V. betonicifolia var. longiscapa, V. phyteumifolia DC. ex Don 1831]B17

Viola betonicifolia ssp. nepalensis (Ging.) Becker 1917 [=V. patrinii γ napaulensis Ging. in DC. 1824; incl. V. caespitosa Don 1825, V. patrinii var. laotiana De Boissieu 1908, V. nilagirica Turcz. 1863, V. walkerii Wight 1840]B17

Viola cunninghamii Hooker 1852 [incl. V. cunninghamii var. multiceps Hooker 1852, V. perexigua Col. 1884, V. cunninghamii var. perexigua (Col.) Kirk 1899, V. cunninghamii var. radicata Hooker 1852]A61

Viola filicaulis Hook. f. 1852 [incl. V. hydrocotyloides Armstrong 1882, V. filicaulis var. hydrocotyloides (Armstrong) Kirk 1899]A61

Viola lyallii Hooker 1864 [=V. cunninghamii var. gracilis Hooker 1852; incl. Erpetion spathulatum Cunn. 1840 non Don 1831]A61

Viola macroceras Bunge 1828 [incl. V. ambigua Salzer 1856, V. macroceras ssp. eumacroceras Kupffer 1909, V. grandifolia Wallich 1828, V. imberbis Led. 1842, V. jooi Janka 1857, V. macroceras ssp. joi Kuppfer 1909, V. sciaphila Schur 1854, V. somchetica Koch 1841, V. transsilvanica Schur 1860, V. uliginosa Boiss. 1867]B17

Viola mandshurica Becker 1917 [incl. V. patrinii var. gmeliniana Miq. 1866, V. patrinii var. macrantha Maximowicz 1859]B17

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BS00] Ballard, H. E., Jr & K. J. Systsma. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): Arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal. Evolution 54 (5): 1521–1532.

[B17] Becker, W. 1917. Zur Klärung der Viola patrinii DC. und ähnlicher Arten. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 156–189.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[T77] Taylor, P. 1977. Lentibulariaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 275–300.

[W17] Weber, C. A. 1917. Die Pflanzenwelt des Rabutzer Beckentons und ihre Entwicklung unter Bezugnahme auf Klima und geologische Vorgänge. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 3–50.

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