Viola capillaris, copyright Mildred Ehrenfeld.

Belongs within: Violaceae.
Contains: Viola section Viola.

Viola, the violets, is a cosmopolitan genus of mostly herbaceous plants bearing bilateral flowers with the lowest petal basally pouched or spurred.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial <35 cm, glabrous to hairy. Leaf entire to compound. Flowers generally solitary, axillary. Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur. Fruit a capsule, ovoid to oblong.

<==Viola Linnaeus 1753 [Violoideae] A61
|–V. (sect. Rubellium) capillaris BS00
`–+–V. (sect. Leptidium) scandens BS00
`–+–V. (sect. Chilenium) reichei BS00
`–+–V. (sect. Andinium) micranthella BS00
`–V. sect. Viola BS00

Viola incertae sedis:
V. adunca [incl. V. adunca var. kirkii, V. adunca var. oxyceras] H93
V. aurea H93
V. bakeri [incl. V. bakeri var. grandis (nom. illeg.), V. bakeri var. shastensis] H93
V. betonicifolia KC83
V. biflora T77
V. caleyana H90
V. cleistogamoides [=V. hederacea ssp. cleistogamoides] H90
V. cunninghamii Hooker 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
V. declinata H09
V. douglasii H93
V. filicaulis Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
V. glabella [incl. V. californica] H93
V. hallii H93
V. hederacea C08
|–V. h. ssp. hederacea H90
`–V. h. ssp. fuscoviolacea H90
V. jooi H09
V. kitaibeliana D37
V. kosaninii GR98
V. lobata H93
|–V. l. ssp. lobata [incl. V. lobata ssp. psychodes] H93
`–V. l. ssp. integrifolia H93
V. lyallii Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
V. maculata D03
V. ocellata H93
V. palustris H93
V. pedunculata [incl. V. pedunculata var. tenuifolia] H93
V. pinetorum [incl. V. purpurea ssp. xerophyta] H93
|–V. p. ssp. pinetorum [incl. V. purpurea ssp. mesophyta] H93
`–V. p. ssp. grisea H93
V. primulifolia H93
|–V. p. ssp. primulifolia H93
`–V. p. ssp. occidentalis [=V. lanceolata ssp. occidentalis] H93
V. rubella BS00
V. sempervirens H93
V. sieberiana H90
V. sororia H93
V. stipularis BS00
V. tomentosa H93
V. tricolor JK80
V. tridentata D03
V. × wittrockiana MH98

Viola cunninghamii Hooker 1852 [incl. V. cunninghamii var. multiceps Hooker 1852, V. perexigua Col. 1884, V. cunninghamii var. perexigua (Col.) Kirk 1899, V. cunninghamii var. radicata Hooker 1852] A61

Viola filicaulis Hook. f. 1852 [incl. V. hydrocotyloides Armstrong 1882, V. filicaulis var. hydrocotyloides (Armstrong) Kirk 1899] A61

Viola lyallii Hooker 1864 [=V. cunninghamii var. gracilis Hooker 1852; incl. Erpetion spathulatum Cunn. 1840 non Don 1831] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BS00] Ballard, H. E., Jr & K. J. Systsma. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): Arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal. Evolution 54 (5): 1521–1532.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Oecologica Oecologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[T77] Taylor, P. 1977. Lentibulariaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 275–300.

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